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An Introduction to Human Geography The Cultural Landscape, 8e James M. Rubenstein. Chapter 8. Political Geography. PPT by Abe Goldman. United Nations Members (list p. 250). UN began with 51 members in 1945. As of Sept. 2011 , there are 193 members, including South Sudan, the newest.

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Chapter 8

An Introduction to Human Geography

The Cultural Landscape, 8e

James M. Rubenstein

Chapter 8

Political Geography

PPT by Abe Goldman

United nations members list p 250
United Nations Members (list p. 250)

UN began with 51 members in 1945.

As of Sept. 2011, there are 193 members, including South Sudan, the newest.

Kosovo could be the next new member state.

K-1: Problems in Defining States & Develop. of State Concept

A State (country):

  • area w/ organized polit. unit

  • ruled by establ. gov’t.

  • has defined territory

  • handles internal & foreign affairs/issues

  • defined population

  • has sovereignty (independ. from other states; self-rule)

    -NOT “state” like USA’s states (are really more like provinces)

    -only large land mass on world that is NOT part of a state is Antarctica….but parts are claimed (some over-lapping) (S-4)

Antarctica national claims
Antarctica: National Claims


is the only



that is not

part of a


but several




of it.

Defining states:

--Korea: 1 or 2 states? controlled by Japan till 1945 (WWII) then split by US & Soviets (38th N. parallel) (1nat./2 states)

--’50: N. invaded S.; Korean War…both want unification

China/Taiwan: 1 or 2? 1940’s: Comm. Rebel & drive

Nationalists to Taiwan…who said were still “real” gov’t of China…comm. said they were, but both said all 1 China

-1999 Taiwan said is separate state…Com-Chi still no

-US had supported Nationalists, but in ’71 said

recogn. Com-Chi as “real” gov’t in the UN (R. Nixon)

--Western Sahara is same type situation

# 5) REVIEW list on p. 250 of 189 “sovereign states of UN”

Use atlas: Relative location OR absolute? Tell which it is

Varying Sizes: Russia = lrgst, 17.1 mill. Sq km/6.6 mil sq mi

Microstates: smallest Monaco = 1.5 sq km/.6 sq mi list: 251

Development of State Concept: ancient vs. modern idea:

Ancient: idea of statesbegan in Mid-East in Fertile Cresc.

-1st states = city-states: town + surrounding countryside = for gov’t & defense (like GWD city + GWD county)

-Then 1 gains power, takes over another…then = empire

EX: Succession of emp. in Mesopotamia.: Sumarians, Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians

-then Egyptian Empire in S. area (3000 BCE- 4th cent. BCE) at far W. end of Fertile Crescent, along the Nile River (for almost 2500 yrs!) 5000 yrs ago

Early European states:height of political unity (in ancient world) = Roman Empire

Included Europe: from Spain to Iran & Egypt to England

-38 provinces, all used Rom. law, giving concept of gov’t.

-fell in 5th (400’s) CE from attacks from “barbarians” & also from internal problems/disputes

Fertile Crescent:

Site of early city-states & a succession of ancient empires (Mesopotamia, Assyria, Babylonia, etc.).

In Europe former Rome-controlled areas began to form under dukes, earls, barons, etc.; gained strength & about 1100, began to form larger areas that became Fr., Engl., & Spain

-later led to idea of nation-states, (like Denmark)

--Germ. & Ital. stayed in pieces & did not form unified country until 19th century…

Colonies: area legally tied to another sov. state; not independence

Colonialism: technically is taking over uninhabited or

sparsely inhabited lands

European colonialism
European colonialism:

Was based on 3 main reasons(God, gold, glory):

1) Missionaries were used to promote Christianity & give justification for taking over (p. 252) (God)

2) Gain resources to help European “mother” country (gold)

3) # colonies related to how powerful you were (glory)

-began in 1400’s in W. Hemisphere & then later in Afr. & Asia

“Imperialism”, or empire building: taking over widely inhabited land by another country

After 1500’s UK put together largest empire:

QUOTE: “Sun never sets on British Empire.” What does this mean?

With breakaway of USA, began to lose places… though they took others in Africa & Asia after USA formed

-Eur. had large areas of colonies there, but also islands

Difference betwn. Fr. & Brit. Way of controlling colonies:

-Fr. tried to make colonials = French, but Brits allowed them to keep more diversity…their old ways

End of Euro. Imperialism:

African & Asian colonies broke away after WWII…began in late 1940’s, lots during 1950’s thru 60’s

When U.N. established in 1948, then were only 15 African/Asian countries…now 105 (2000)

Most colonies today = islands in Pacific or Caribbean

Most populous colony today = Puerto Rico (USA)

Least populous: Pitcairn Isl., S. Pacific. The pop. there came from British ship The Bounty’smutineers who settled (Mutiny on the Bounty)

Colonial Possessions 1914:By the outbreak of WWI,

European states held colonies thru the world, espec.

in Africa & in much of Asia.

Colonial possessions 2003 p 254 5 2000
Colonial Possessions, 2003 (p. 254-5 = 2000)

Most remaining colonies are small islands in Pacific or Caribbean

K-2 Why boundaries Cause problems:

Boundaries: invisible line marking extent of state territory

Used to be that almost all boundaries were frontiers, with few if any inhabitants, but now most all land is claimed & defined.

Only Antarctica & parts of the Arabian Peninsula are now true frontiers

2 ways to define (determine) boundaries:

1) types of Physicalfeatures (3 of these):

water (rivers + seas) deserts mountains

2) Cultural features (4 types) to determine:

*language *religion *ethnicities

& *geometric (often latitude & longitude lines)

Both physical & cultural can = conflict w/ neighbors

After WWI (1919),Treaty of Versailles used “language” as the #1 way to determine boundaries of new states & to adjust borders of existing states:






determine border?

5 basic SHAPES of states:

Compact prorupted elongated fragmented perforated

1. Compact: efficient; ideal = shaped like circle…or close

-good for small 1’s b/c communication, esp. if capital in center

2. Prorupted: most compact + large projecting extens. (often for water)

--also can do to avoid borders (Afgh. w/ Russia?)

3. Elongated: isolation? EX: Chile; problems w/ communic.

--cap. usually at center, so end, not easily accessible to it

4. Fragmented: broken up by water, other states, etc

--EX: Indonesia; E/W Pakistan?

-problems = communication, integration of pop.; also

sometimes "pieces" didn't come in voluntarily

-EX: E. Timor…got indep.('75); Indon. invades; still fight

5. Perforated: EX: S. Afr.: Lesotho in middle, surrounded by

S. Afr….depends on SA for imports/exports by ship

Next slide: ID each of the shapes for the states shown 

Italy france thailand japan see the dominant shape
Italy, France, Thailand, Japan (See the dominant shape)

Landlocked:again, Lesotho; (also Uruguay)Africa has most of any continent w/ 14/54 landlocked

These have no seaports

-Comes from colonial era…had others on coast could ship to by rail

Now it’s problem for the local econ.

...When landlocked AND have hostile ethnic group(s) in betw. sea & borders = Major problem for international trade

African states
African States


central, &





that are







India: The Tin Bigha Corridorfragmented 2 sections of the country of Bangladesh. When it was leased to Bangladesh, a section of India was fragmented.

Frontiers in the Arabian Peninsula:Several states in the Arabian Peninsula are separated by frontiers rather than precise boundaries.

Aozou strip a geometric boundary
Aozou Strip: A Geometric Boundary

The straight boundary between Libya & Chad was drawn by

European powers, & the Aozou Strip is the subject of controversy between the 2 countries.


State w/ many nationalities:(262) Cyprus: 2 nationalities

After WWI, divided by lang. into Greek/Turk areas more Gks. there, but closer to Turkey; then Britain gained it

Gave indep. In 1960; Gks/Tur shared govt…til ’74 some Gks tried to take it for Greece, then Turkey invaded to protect from Turks

Groups used to associate w/ each other & mingle, but now isolated at ends, w/ buffer in middle w/ UN soldiers (Gk. Cypriots & Turkish Cypriots)

Turks declared indep., but no one recognizes this except them

Division of cyprus
Division of Cyprus

Fig. 8-10: Cyprus has been divided into Green & Turkish portions since 1974.

Former USSR: (262) Largest multi-national state: former members now = 15 new indep. states, in 5 groups

1- Baltic States (3-on Baltic Sea): Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania

2-European (3): Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine (in Ukr. some problems w/ Crimean Peninsula’s pop.)

3-Central Asian (5): Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, & Uzbekistan

4-Caucasus (Cauc. Mtns., Eurasian border--3): Azerbaijan, Armenia, & Georgia

-Azeris: pop. = 90% of Azerb.…but 6 mill. live in Iran

-Armenia = Christian enclave; historically slaughtered by Muslim Turks; after USSR, became Armenia again

--90% of country = Armenians; fight w/ Azeris over border

lands in which both nationalities exist--Georgia: more diverse than Azer. & Arme. = problems

5-Russia: now largest multi-natl. state; recognize 39 natls.

-1 of these is Chechnya …these = Sunni Muslims w/

distinct culture; Russ. says if it goes, others will also

Notes on enclave & exclave (see next slide): These are not in your book…but have appeared on AP’s…

1) enclave: an area surrounded by an area that does not rule (control, ID w/ ) it.

EX’s: Vatican City; Lesotho; Gambia (actually a penne-enclave b/c it has a small outlet to the sea):

2) exclaves: parts of a national territory separated from the main body of the country

EX’s: Alaska; Kaliningrad (part of Russia but on Baltic Sea); former E. Pakistan, separated from W. Pakistan

--is a kind of fragmentation


*Russia’s Kalingrad on Baltic

*Old E & W Pakistan

Enclaves (Gambia = penne [quill feather] enclave – elongated & open to sea) Lesotho in S. Afr.

Eastern europe satellites controlled by ussr former ussr another needed term
Eastern Europe “satellites” (controlled by USSR) & Former USSR (another needed term!!!)

Know these stateless nations
KNOW these!! Stateless Nations:

Nation: Part of which state? Region/Location







N. Ireland

(aka Ulster)


Western Sahara





Puerto Rico


Some have 1 nationality in more than 1 state:266Kurds: Sunni Muslims; in 1920’s became nation-state

-now 25 mill. split among 6 countries: Turkey (15), Iran (5), Iraq (4), & less in Azerbai. Armenia, & Syria

--Kurds are a “stateless nation”

--Turks don’t allow their lang. or culture; other prob. also

Pan-Arab Nation: 1 nation, many states; lang. & relig. same for about 24 countries: Islam & Arabic

-main reason split up is Euro. colonialism & Ottoman rule

--except for Israel, are well-united, but wealth not

equal b/c some have oil (petroleum), others don’t

-p. 267: What happened from 1980-1991 that

ended unity?

Kurdish nation the pan arab nation
Kurdish nation … & the “Pan-Arab” nation

Kurdish distribution label all indicate areas by color
Kurdish distribution: Label ALL & indicate areas by color

Unitary vs. Federal: Internal organization of states

Unitary state: power in hands of 1 central govt.

-unitary usually best for country w/ single nationality, like Europeans

-but many w/ multi-national use unitary to force 1 nation’s culture, lang., etc., onto another

EX: USSR & Chinese Comm., to promote communist ideas

Also--several African nations w/ many divided ethnicities & 1 dominates

Characteristics that work for Unitary system:

--smaller size, good central or accessible location for capital (for good communication);

--nation-states w/ few cultural differences, strong national unity (like many of European states)

Federal system:

Gov’t in which a written constitution divides the powers of gov’t between a central (national) gov’t & several regional governments, usually called states or provinces.

--local units of govt. are stronger than in unitary system

–works well for larger countries that may have long distance for some to capital (US, Can., India)

Also when have several nationalities, local control helps keep peace with the less influential grps.

EX: Even though small, Belgium is Fed. b/c of its 2 nationalities (??)

--many now movingtoward federal from unitary, like France & Poland

-France’s change is going fine, but E. Europeans, like Poland, tend to have more trouble w/ changes

Unitary vs federal states countries blue unitary green federal
Unitary vs. Federal states (countries)Blue = Unitary Green = Federal

Heartland vs.RimlandTheory of Geopolitics: 

Basically stated: - Whoever rules Eastern Europe commands the heartland. - Whoever rules the heartland commands the World Island(Eurasia and Africa) - Whoever rules the World Island commands the World.

Heartland h mackinder vs rimland n spykman theory of geopolitics
Heartland (H. MacKinder) vs. Rimland (N. Spykman) Theory of Geopolitics:

1904, Halford Mackinder published a theory RE: political strength in Eurasia…analyzed the strengths & weaknesses of the regions

Concluded the Russian Core & areas east of the core had potential to become a world power.

1919: revised his theory to include E. Europe & the theory became known as Mackinder's Heartland Theory.

Basically stated: - Who rules East Europe commands the heartland. - Who rules heartland commands the World Island (Eurasia & Africa) - Who rules the World Island commands the World.

1942, Nicholas Spykman: countered Mackinder's Heartland Theory. Spykman stated that Eurasia's Rimland, the coastal areas or buffer zone, is the key to controlling the World Island, not the heartland.

Spykman's book, "America's Strategy in World Politics" was published during World War II dealt w/ political & military strength of the USA at that time.

Today we look at the Rimland in terms of its economic strength & potential, but the book dealt w/ primarily military intervention, control & conquest of the Old World.

Odd shapes gerrymandering fl ga gerrymandering designing borders to maximize political influence
ODD shapes:Gerrymandering: FL & GAGerrymandering: designing borders to maximize political influence

State legislature


were drawn

to maximize

the number of

legislators for

Republicans in

Florida &

Democrats in


K-3: Why States Cooperate w/ each other States

The UN (p. 274): began '45 w/ 49…now has 192 (191); job = peace

-- Taiwan only populous w/o membership…Taiwan pulled out when China in in 1971

-recently tried to join as Taiwan or Repub. of Ch., but

Commun. China (People’s Rep. of Ch.)

--Switzerland finally joined 2002…

--all countries supposed to contribute military support

UN had rapid growth 3 times:

1) '55 (16): many former German controlled Euro. nations

2) '60: (17): most former Euro. colonies

3) -'90-93 (26): most former Comm. controlled countries

US tried to start League of Nations (Wilson, 1919) after WWI, but US would not join

--then Germany, Italy, Sov. Union, & Japan pulled out in '30's, & League fell apart

UN Security Council: 5 permanent members:

USA USSR (now Russia) France China UK

These 5 have veto power & often used to keep UN out of situations they were in

EX: South & North Korea in ‘50's:

Soviets (USSR) walked out

Often UN tries to keep control over warring ethnic groups in places like Somalia, Bosnia

Tried to be neutral in Bosnia, but couldn't b/c of Serbs’ (Christian & stronger) treatment of Muslims’ weaker group

15 total: 5 permanent members +

2 other sets of 5, in 2 yr. terms 

Regional military organ. (p. 270):

B4 Cold War in '40's-70's, were always more than 2 Superpowers …but after WW II, US & USSR came out as only 2 b/c others were hit hard economically

These 2 superpowers joined military alliances to keep balance of power

…so you were

either "for" US or

for USSR (p. 270)

Others became

allies or satellites,

& could cause


Military cooperation in Euro:

Most of Europe joined NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) after WWII

--military coop betwn. 16 democratic states: US, Canada, & 14 Europ (Fr. & Sp. members but contrib. no troops)

Warsaw Pact: 1955, Communist 7 member co-op group

-’68 Czech. leader wanted reforms; Warsaw Pact invaded

-NATO was to keep USSR’s Warsaw P. straight & vice-versa

When USSR busted, less need…Warsaw broke up

NATO troops

were reduced

Some former Warsaw Pact


join NATO

by 1997


35 states in

W. Hemisphere:

Cuba was a

member, but

was thrown out

in 1962 b/c of Castro

The european union nato
The European Union & NATO

Fig. 8-12: NATO and the European Union have expanded and accepted new members as the Warsaw Pact and COMECON have disintegrated.

European boundary changes
European Boundary Changes

20th century


changes in

Europe, 1914

to 2003.




after each

world war &

the collapse

of the USSR.

Economic Coop (274).:

EU (?): work toward econ. coop w/ Eur countries (1958)

At 1st = Eur Econ Community, Common Mkt., & Eur. Commun. began w/ Belgium, Fr., W.Germ., Italy, Luxem., & Nether.; ’73 more…’81 more; ’86, ’95

3 EU capital cities:

Strasbourg, Fr; Brussels, Belg.; Luxembourg

Now have a European Parlia.; at 1st just helped w/ problems

--Now have more free trade among nations

--Use “Euro” as money in 11 countries

COMECON (?):b4 end of USSR, communist countries had COMECONwhich promoted trade among those countries

Shatter belt(extra needed term! Not in yr bk!)

Region caught between stronger colliding external cultural-political forces, under persistent stress, & often fragmented by aggressive rivals."Area hit often with outside conflicts and stressesIt has also played the role of a cold war buffer zone.

EX: Southeast Asia: borders the "giants" of India and China. One country of the realm, Myanmar, borders both. To the east, the island State of Indonesia controls the western half of the island of New Guinea, yet the whole island is included in the pacific realm.Another EX: Eastern Europe: often invaded, cultural differences

Germany europe
Germany & Europe:

German domination of W. Eur?

--now the most powerful nation in European economy

--has pushed for a stronger, more united Eur.

This has led many in Eur. to fear Ger. may again “rise” as it did before WW I & WWII

Ger. was not “state” until 1871

-Frederick the Great & von Bismarck united many of the German speaking people into the German Empire (lasted less than 50 yrs…end of WWI 1919)

-WWII: took “German speaking”…or close… countries of Austria, Poland, Czech., to make true German. nation-state

After WWII, split Ger into W & E; split Berlin to 4 parts

New European Union Nations:Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia & Slovenia join the Schengen area.

Trading blocs: regional groupsthat give preferential treatment to those w/in their bloc.

3 most important:

1) Western Hemisphere (NAFTA & now CAFTA?)

NAFTA: North American Free Trade Agreement:

-Mexico, USA, + Canada: was Can. + US,

then added Mex. & became NAFTA

CAFTA: Central Amer. Free Trade Agreement

2) Western Eur.: European Union

3) East Asia: Japan leads; China, S. Korea, some

w/ N. Korea

OPEC: ?(not really regional) --economic organization to protect oil producers

Oil embargo of 1973-74 led to gas rationing & long lines in USA


adjusts to






take hrs.

to get

5 – 10


K-4: Terrorism: Individuals & Organizations

States believed to support terrorism:

Libya, Afghanistan, Iraq, Iran…& now Pakistan

Terrorism: systematic use of violence by a group to intimidate a population or coerce (force) a gov’t. into granting its demands

-1st used in French Revolution: Reign of Terror (1793-4)

-most times it refers to groups outside of gov’t.’s

--differs from assassination……

-terrorism is aimed at ordinary people

--but assn. aimed at leaders, etc.

Terror vs retaliation which is it us vs them
Terror vs. retaliation: Which is it? Us vs. them???

Hard to tell at times

EX: w/ Palestinians & Jews gets very difficult…Is it terrorism…or a response to a wartime attack?

Does it depend on your POV?

What other groups do they mention?

Attacks on USA: Several in 1990’s:

1 on WTC, 1 on USS Cole, 2 attacks on U.S. African embassies, but most Americans ignored these…was hard to get U.S. ppl involved

Amer. Terrorists: OKC bombing, 1995: T. McVeigh said was retaliation against US gov’t. attacks on Branch Davidians in Waco, TX, in ‘93

Sept. 11, 2001: WTC destroyed; Pentagon hit also

-Al Qaeda: did most of the 1990’s US attacks

-bin Laden: son of Yemen billionaire ($ made in Saudi Arabia); spent his inheritance building Al Qaeda(“the base”)

-1st fought against USSR in Afghanistan b/c of

Soviet hostility to religions …his 1stjihad (holy war)

1996: USA supported Saudi Arabia & Israel, so called for jihad against US…

-these are “outlaw” Islamic groups, actions NOT condoned by MOST Muslims, even if they disagree w/ many USA’s policies

State sponsored terrorism:

3 increasing levels of involvement:

1) providing sanctuary for terrorists wanted by other countries

2) supplying weapons, $$, & intelligence to terrorists

3) planning attacks using terrorists

US Response to 9/11: US accused Afghanistan, Iraq, & Iran w/ at least 1 of the 3 levels of support for terrorism

--attacked Afghan. in 2001 & Iraq in 2003

Add Pakistan today?

Libya: 1980’s: al-Qaddafi (Kaddafi) paid for executions of opponents exiled in Europe (Muamar Quadafi)

1981: Libyan plane shot at US plane b/c said was over Libyan airspace; US said international .. US shot down

In Lebanon: Libyan bombers blew up Berlin nightclub used by US soldiers …so US bombed 2 Libyan cities

1988: Pan-Am Flight 103 , over Lockerbie, Scotland, downed by Libyan agents

Afghanistan: 1973: Afghan king overthrown by military

1978…replaced by gov’t friendly to Soviets

1979, USSR sent in troops b/c of “holy warriors”…USSR out in 1989

1992, Taliban took over; Taliban-led Afgh. was attacked

09/11/2001: US hit Taliban b/c it sheltered bin Laden & Al-Qaeda …then ethnic grps fought for control

-Taliban is again growing in power w/ Pakistan support

SW Asian Ethnic Grps.:

Ethnic boundaries don’t match country boundaries... especially in Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, & Pakistan.

Iraq: 1st trouble w/ Hussein: 1991 Persian Gulf War b/c he invaded Kuwait… but he stayed til 2003

2003 US attacked in 2003 remove Saddam, saying had WMD’s… --supported by UK & a few others

Difference 1991 & 2003: most of UN supported US in ’91, but not in 2003 US attacked “unilaterally”

All knew Saddam was a tyrant, but said this didn’t justify attacks to them …..most didn’t think WMD’s still in Iraq,

Iraq & al-Qaeda ties? NO--Ba’athists & a-Q have different views on most things, so most UN didn’t see a close tie there

Iran: 1979: Iran’s people forced the pro-US Shah out

Militants took over US embassy & held them hostage for 444 days…US was very hostile toward Iran

Iraq & Iran began fighting each other in ’80 & ’81 over a waterway that flowed into the Persian Gulf…1.5 mill. died

US lately has begun saying Iran is urging Shi’ites in Iraq to take over & establish power…also nuclear (WMD’s) issue

Other countries US has accused of terrorism or aiding terrorism:

Yemen: base for al-Qaeda cells & sheltered terrorists who

attacked USS Cole

Sudan: once sheltered bin Laden & other militants

Syria: support for Iranian & Libyan terrorists

North Korea: developing nuclear weapons

World trade center
World Trade Center terrorism:

Ikonos satellite images of the World Trade Center June 30, 2000, before the attack.

World trade center site 9 15 2001
World Trade Center Site terrorism:9/15/2001

Ikonos satellite images of the World Trade Center Sept. 15, 2001, after the attack.

Caucasus Region terrorism: