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Israel and Pakistan. The Creation of Pakistan: A Look Back. India is one of the oldest civilizations (2800BC) Ruled by Hindus until 700 AD Ruled by Muslims thereafter until 1857 British made India a colony after taking over Indian Nationalist Congress Party formed in 1885

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the creation of pakistan a look back
The Creation of Pakistan: A Look Back
  • India is one of the oldest civilizations (2800BC)
    • Ruled by Hindus until 700 AD
    • Ruled by Muslims thereafter until 1857
    • British made India a colony after taking over
      • Indian Nationalist Congress Party formed in 1885
      • Wanted Independence
muslim league party 1906
Muslim League Party (1906)
  • Also wanted independence
  • Worried about Hindus controlling India
    • Hindus greatly outnumbered Muslims
      • 140 million Muslims in India at the time
    • They wanted Muslim Rule
  • Wanted India to be split
    • Too many differences to stay together
    • Two Nation Theory:
      • India for Hindus
      • Pakistan for Muslims
wwii and the united nations
WWII and the United Nations
  • Britain was devastated after WWII
    • Freed colonies as a result
  • Britain handed over the responsibility of India to the United Nations
  • The UN decided to split India
    • Split by religion in 1947
      • Caused problems that still exist today
the split
The Split
  • Split three ways
    • East Pakistan, West Pakistan, and India
    • India was located in between both Pakistans
    • East and West Pakistan were 1,000 miles apart
  • People had to move to their new countries
    • Violence resulted
    • 27 million Hindus and Muslims still lived in the wrong countries
  • India had been divided into 500 states by Britain
    • Both Hindus and Muslims ruled different states
    • Many of these states merged after the split
two problems
Two Problems
  • Hyderabad and Kashmir
    • Hyderabad: Muslim ruler with Hindu citizens
      • Simply given to India, though the Muslims rejected
      • An appeal was made to the UN; nothing resulted
    • Kashmir: Hindu ruler with Muslim citizens
      • Kashmir bordered West Pakistan
      • Both sides sent soldiers to claim Kashmir in 1948
      • The UN imposed a cease fire and divided Kashmir
        • ¼ of Kashmir went to Pakistan
        • The leader of West Pakistan was born in Kashmir
second war
Second War
  • No election for Kashmir like was promised
  • 2nd war was in 1965
    • Thousands died for no gains
    • Russia brought about the cease fire
pakistan civil war
Pakistan Civil War
  • East Pakistanis differed from the West Pakistan
    • Skin color, language (Bengali and English), degree of religious importance
  • West Pakistan controlled 99% of their army
  • India would not allow West Pakistan to pass through their country, though.
  • East Pakistan won as a result and became Bangladesh in 1971
    • Desh=country
the creation of israel a look back
The Creation of Israel: A Look Back
  • Ancient Romans expelled Jews from Israel
  • Palestine became the new region title
  • Palestine was conquered by the Arabs in 638AD
  • They were not free until well after WWI
broken promises
Broken Promises
  • Arabs agreed to fight for the Allies in WWI
    • Arabs would get freedom
    • Fought bravely to defeat the Ottoman Empire
  • “Secret Treaties of London”
    • New agreement reached behind the Arab’s back
    • The Allies colonized the Middle East
      • British: Palestine and Iraq
      • France: Syria and Lebanon
israel s return
Israel’s Return
  • Jews began returning to Palestine before WWI
    • A divine right; their dream
  • British told Arabs they were not going to give Jews their own state
    • They lied: Balfour Declaration
  • Palestine was upset and objected
    • Over 600,000 Muslims in Palestine then
    • Only 55,000 Jewish people
a growing problem
A Growing Problem
  • By 1939, 445,000 Jews resided in Palestine
    • Emigrated from Europe
  • Clashes began between the British and Arabs
    • Terror groups arose
    • Caused Britain to set up a commission to decide the fate of Palestine
recommendations
Recommendations
  • 1. Terminate Rule over Palestine
  • 2. Split Palestine into two states
  • 3. Internationalize Jerusalem and Bethlehem
    • Why is Jerusalem so important?
  • 4. Quota for Jewish Population
    • Both Arabs and Jews did not want a quota
      • Arabs wanted no more Jews
      • Jews wanted no limitations
united nations gets involved
United Nations Gets Involved
  • Britain was tired of this continuing problem
  • In 1948, the UN intervened and split Palestine
    • Israel was created
  • The UN would rule Jerusalem
    • The Arabs rejected this agreement
      • Arabs said the UN could only make recommendations, but not enforce. Is this true?
arab israeli war
Arab-Israeli War
  • The Israelis and Arabs went to war immediately and did not end until a UN cease fire was implemented
  • Three results of the war:
    • 1. 800,000 Arab refugees fled the region
      • Israel would not let them back after the conflict
      • They now number over 4,000,000
      • UN gives them some money
      • Israel gave refugee homes to more European refugees
      • More terrorism resulted
arab israeli war continued
Arab-Israeli War Continued
  • 2. No peace treaty; a cease fire
  • 3. Borders based on the cease fire
    • Israel increased land size from 5,500 to 8,000 sq. miles
    • More wars in 1967, 1973, and 1982; continued terrorism to this day
    • Disputed territory in the West Bank and Gaza Strip
    • In 1967, Israel fought Egypt, Lebanon, and Syria all at once
      • How did they survive?.....they actually gained land, but UN Resolution 242 was adopted
      • Anwar Sadat in 1973