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Chapter 24 THE NATION AT WAR. A New World Power. American foreign policy pursued by Presidents Roosevelt, Taft, & Wilson (1901-1920) was aggressive & nationalistic US left the Span-Am War peace table (1898) possessing the Philippines, Puerto Rico, & Guam

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Chapter 24 the nation at war


A new world power
A New World Power

  • American foreign policy pursued by Presidents Roosevelt, Taft, & Wilson (1901-1920) was aggressive & nationalistic

  • US left the Span-Am War peace table (1898) possessing the Philippines, Puerto Rico, & Guam

  • Built a large navy to protect the colonial empire, estab’d US Army War College

  • More & more involved in economic ventures abroad


I took the canal zone
"I Took the Canal Zone"

  • TR wanted a canal to link the Atlantic & Pacific oceans across the isthmus connecting N Am & S Am

    • It would be open to ships of all nations

  • Desired route was in Panama, a Columbian possession ~ Columbia said “no deal”

    • TR considered seizing the area, but settled for encouraging a revolution & then sent US forces to prevent Colombia from putting down the revolt

  • The new, independent Panama permitted construction to begin in 1904

    • 1914 ~ Panama Canal opened


The roosevelt corollary
The Roosevelt Corollary

  • US treated Latin America as a protectorate

  • “Roosevelt Corollary” ~ Warned Latin Am countries to keep their affairs in order or face US intervention

  • Intervention occurred in…

    • Dominican Republic

    • Panama

    • Cuba


Ventures in the far east
Ventures in the Far East

  • 1905 ~ Roosevelt mediated the Russo-Japanese War (Russia losing/Japan bankrupt)

  • Taft-Katsura Agreement (Taft Sec of War)

    • Korea under Japanese influence

    • Japan to respect US control of Philippines

  • 1907 ~ ”Gentleman’s Agreement” Japan promises to stop immigration

  • 1908 ~ (Sec State) Root-Takahira Agreement

    • Maintain status quo in Far East

    • Accept Open Door & Chinese independence

  • 1915 ~ Japan seized German colonies in China and claimed authority over China


Taft dollar diplomacy
Taft & Dollar Diplomacy

  • Taft substituted economic force for military

  • American bankers assumed Honduran debt to English bondholders, took over assets of the Natl Bank of Haiti & Nicaragua’s Natl Bank

  • Taft's support for US economic influence in Manchuria alienated China, Japan, Russia

  • Generally speaking, Dollar Diplomacy promoted US financial & business interests abroad


Foreign policy under wilson
Foreign Policy Under Wilson

  • Wilson inexperienced in diplomacy, yet he faced crisis after crisis foreign affairs, including the outbreak of WWI

  • Conducted his own diplomacy, composing diplomatic notes on his own typewriter

  • “The force of America is the force of moral principle.”

    • Militarism, colonialism & war must be brought under control

    • “Extend the blessings of democracy”


Conducting moral diplomacy
Conducting Moral Diplomacy

  • Wilson negotiated “cooling-off” treaties to try & settle disputes without war

  • Resorted to military force in Latin America

    • Intervened there more than Roosevelt or Taft

Troubles across the border
Troubles Across the Border

  • 1913 ~ Gen Victoriano Huerta led coup in Mexico (Francisco Madero)

  • Wilson denied Huerta recognition

    • Revolutionary regimes must reflect “a just govt based upon law”

  • Wilson blocked arms shipments to Mexico

  • 1914 ~ US seized Vera Cruz

  • 1916 ~ US Army pursued “Pancho” Villa


Activities of the united states in the caribbean 1898 1930
Activities of the United States in the Caribbean, 1898–1930

Several Americans killed


Toward war
Toward War 1898–1930

  • War in Europe

    • Large armies dominated Europe & a web of alliances entangled nations, maximizing risks

    • June 28, 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to throne in Austria-Hungary assassinated by Bosnian linked to Serbia

  • Central Powers ~ Germany, Austria-Hungary, & Turkey

  • Allied Powers ~ Eng, France, Italy, & Russia

  • Wilson sympathized with Allies, but sought US neutrality


The neutrality policy
The Neutrality Policy 1898–1930

  • Progressives saw war as wasteful, irrational

  • Suspicion that business sought war for profit

  • Immigrants preferred US neutrality

  • A long tradition of US neutrality

  • Americans saw little national stake in war


Freedom of the seas
Freedom of the Seas 1898–1930

  • England blockade of Germany

  • US ships to Germany seized by English

  • Wilson accepted English promise of reimbursement at war’s end

  • Germans used U-boats to interrupt trade with Allies

  • US trade with Allies boomed, but was increasingly financed by loans from American banks

  • Allies owed US banks $2B by 1917


The u boat threat
The U-Boat Threat 1898–1930

  • German submarines violated international law by shooting without warning

  • Wilson was urged to ban travel, but he refused

  • 1915 ~ Lusitania sunk by U-Boat

    • Wilson demanded Germans protect passenger ships & pay for losses

  • April, 1916 ~ Wilson issued ultimatum: Call off attacks on cargo & passenger ships or US-German relations would be severed

  • May, 1916 ~ SussexPledge—Germany pledges to honor US neutrality


He kept us out of war
"He Kept Us Out of War" 1898–1930

  • 1915-16 ~ Wilson campaigned for peace & “preparedness” ~ Growing U-Boat threat

  • Republican Charles Evans Hughes campaigned on tougher line against Germany

  • Wilson won close election

    • Won large labor, progressive vote

    • Won majority of women’s vote


Chapter 24 the nation at war

p.700 1898–1930

The final months of peace
The Final Months of Peace 1898–1930

  • Feb 1917 ~ Germany renewed U-Boat attacks

  • The British govt provided a copy of an intercepted telegram from the German foreign minister to the German ambassador in Mexico ~ The (Arthur) Zimmerman Telegram

    • Wanted Mexico to enter the war against the US

  • Wilson’s response

    • Ordered US merchant vessels armed

    • Ordered US Navy to fire on German U-Boats

  • April 6, 1917 ~ War declared on Germany


Over there
Over There 1898–1930

  • Allies were in danger of losing the war

    • Germans sunk 881,000 T of Allied shipping during April, 1917

    • Mutinies in French army

    • British drive in Flanders stalled

    • Bolsheviks signed separate peace with Germany; German troops to West

    • Italian army routed on southern flank

  • Allies braced for spring, 1918 offensive


Mobilization us not prepared
Mobilization 1898–1930US Not Prepared

  • Wilson placed John J. “Black Jack” Pershing in command of the Am Expeditionary Force

  • No US contingency plans for war

    • 300k old rifles, 1.5k machine guns, 155 out of date airplanes, 2 field radio sets

    • 200k troops at war’s beginning

  • Congress ~ Selective Service Act

    • Conscripted 2.8M by war’s end

    • African Americans drafted as well


War in the trenches
War in the Trenches 1898–1930

  • Teaming of US, English navies reduced Allied losses to submarines by half

  • June, 1917 ~ US troops arrived in France

  • Spring, 1918 ~ US forces helped halt final German offensive

    • Battle of Chateau Thierry

    • Battle of Belleau Wood

  • September ~ Germans out of St. Mihiel

  • First use of poison gas & tanks


The western front u s participation 19181
The Western Front: U.S. Participation, 1918 1898–1930

Armistice (Peace) Treaty signed on November 11, 1918

Note: 11th Hour, 11th Day, 11th Month Veterans’ Day


The western front u s participation 19182
The Western Front: U.S. Participation, 1918 1898–1930

Armistice (Peace) Treaty signed on November 11, 1918

Note: 11th Hour, 11th Day, 11th Month Veterans’ Day

112k Americans Died


Over here
Over Here 1898–1930

  • Victory on front depends on mobilization at home

    • War financed primarily by the sale of “Liberty Bonds”

  • Wilson consolidates federal authority to organize war production & distribution

  • Wilson campaigned for American mind’s, the “conquest of of their convictions,” was as vital as events on the battlefield


The conquest of convictions
The Conquest of Convictions 1898–1930

  • Wartime laws to repress dissent

    • Espionage Act ~ Outlawed acts to aid the enemy, even encouraging disloyalty

    • Trading with the Enemy Act ~ Govt can censor foreign language press

    • Sedition Act ~ Criticism of the war made a crime

    • 1.5k dissenters imprisoned, including Eugene Debs

    • Numerous atrocities (lynching, etc.)

  • Summer, 1918 ~ Anticommunism prompts deployment of US troops to Russia to “protect US supplies from the Germans”

    • 1917 Bolshevik Revolution ~ Vladimir Lenin

    • Wilson feared the communist idea would spread


A bureaucratic war
A Bureaucratic War 1898–1930

  • War Industries Board & other agencies supervised production, distribution to maximize war effort

  • Govt seized some businesses to keep them running

  • Cooperation between govt & business the norm

  • Business profits from wartime industry


Labor in the war
Labor in the War 1898–1930

  • Union membership swells

  • Labor shortage prompts

    • Wage increase

    • Entry of Mexican Americans, women, African Americans to war-related industrial work force

  • Labor saw a chance to “trade labor peace for labor advances”


Labor in the war1
Labor in the War 1898–1930

  • 200k blacks served in France

    • 42k combat troops

    • Expected to find better conditions when they returned

  • Great Migration to northern factories

    • Blacks must adjust industrial work pace

    • Encounter Northern racism

  • 1917–1919 ~ Race riots in urban North

  • Wartime experience prompted new surge of black resistance to discrimination


The treaty of versailles official end to wwi
The Treaty of Versailles 1898–1930Official end to WWI

  • Common concern about Bolshevik revolution

  • Wilson’s Fourteen Points call for non-punitive settlement

  • England & France balk at Fourteen Points

    • Want Germany disarmed & crippled

    • Want Germany’s colonies

    • Skeptical of principle of self-determination


The treaty of versailles
The Treaty of Versailles 1898–1930

Near Paris, France

A peace at paris
A Peace at Paris 1898–1930

  • Wilson failed to deflect Allied punishment of Germany in treaty

  • Treaty created Wilson’s League of Nations

    • Article X of League charter required members to protect each others’ territorial integrity

  • League's jurisdiction excluded member nations’ domestic affairs


Chapter 24 the nation at war

p.713 1898–1930

Rejection in the senate
Rejection in the Senate 1898–1930

  • William Borah (R-ID) led “irreconcibles” who opposed treaty on any grounds

    • 14 Republican senators against every aspect of the League of Nations

  • October, 1919: Stroke disables Wilson

    • November: Treaty fails in Senate

  • January, 1920: Final defeat of Treaty

  • July, 1921: US peace declared by joint Congressional resolution


Rejection in the senate1
Rejection in the Senate 1898–1930

  • Wilson hopes democratic victory in 1920 election would provide mandate for League of Nations

  • Landslide for Republican Warren Harding

  • Defeat of League of Nations brought defeat of Progressive spirit


The election of 1920
The Election of 1920 1898–1930

James M. Cox

See picture p.708


Postwar disillusionment
Postwar Disillusionment 1898–1930

  • To the next generation the war seemed futile, wasteful

  • The progressive spirit survived but without enthusiasm or broad based support

  • Americans welcomed Harding’s return to “normalcy”


Chapter 24 the nation at war1

Chapter 24 1898–1930THE NATION AT WAR