PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS NOTES

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# PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS NOTES - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS NOTES. Atoms vs. Ions. Atoms = same number P + & E - Ex: (+3) + (-3) = 0 charge is ZERO Ions = same # P + , …but more or less E - Ex: (+3) + (-4) = -1 Ex: (+3) + (-2) = +1 Charge is (+ or -).

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## PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS NOTES

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Presentation Transcript
Atoms vs. Ions
• Atoms = same number P+ & E-
• Ex: (+3) + (-3) = 0
• charge is ZERO
• Ions = same # P+,

…but more or less E-

• Ex: (+3) + (-4) = -1
• Ex: (+3) + (-2) = +1
• Charge is (+ or -)

*sodium ion laser is used to determine the temperature in the mesosphere and the lower thermosphere

Quick Electron Lesson
• Electrons are found in the energy levels.
• Electrons affect the properties of elements
• Remember atoms have a ZERO CHARGE
• If an atom has a charge  ONLY affects ELECTRONS
• # P+ ≠ #E-
• If Positive (+) charge, TAKE AWAY electrons
• If Negative (-) charge, ADD ON electrons
Ions: What and Why?
• An Ion is an atom with a + or -charge
• Cation = ion with + charge
• Anion = ion with - charge
• Goal: fill outermost shell (Octet Rule)
• Ex. Na = 11 electrons (7 more until full shell)
• Na+1 = 10 electrons (outermost shell full)
• Valence Electrons (outermost shell electrons) are used for bonding
How to organize elements?
• Early scientists used the properties of elements to sort them into groups.
• Elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number.
How It Works
• Rows (across) = PERIODS
• Goes in order of ATOMIC NUMBER
• Determines # energy levels
• Elements within a period = PROPERTIES CHANGE

Periodic law: the pattern of properties within a period repeats as you move from one period to the next

How It Works
• Columns (up and down) = GROUPS or FAMILIES
• Determines the # valence electrons
• Elements within a group = SIMILAR PROPERTIES

Metals

Metalloids

Nonmetals

“Staircase”

• Metals:
• Good Conductors
• High Luster or Sheen (Shiny)
• Ductile
• Malleable
• Nonmetals: (Opposite of metals)
• Metalloids: Act as a metal or nonmetal
Metallic Trend
• Most metallic elements are Cesium (Cr) and Francium (Fr)

In your journal, outline the periodic table and include the trends.

Main Groups
• Alkali Metals
• Alkaline Metals
• Transition Metals
• Metalloids
• Nonmetals
• Halogens
• Noble Gasses
• Lanthanides
• Actinides
Group 1: Alkali Metals“The Gentlemen”
• Except Hydrogen
• Traits:
• 1 valence electron
• Lose valence electron +1 charge
• VERY REACTIVE
• (Almost) always bonds with halogens
Group 7: Halogens

• Common Salts:
• Chlorine (Cl)
• Bromine (Br)
• Iodine (I)
• Traits:
• 7 valence electrons
• Gains 1 valence electrons -1 charge
• VERY REACTIVE
• Almost awalysbonds with Alkali gentlemen
Why They Make Such a Cute Couple…Reason for Bonding

Goal: To settle down

Meet the OCTET RULE

Valence electrons = bonding

Alkali Gentlemen= 1 valence electron

• No Charge = No Drama!
• Alkali (Sodium) = +1 charge
• Halogens (Chlorine) = -1 charge
• NaCl = (+1) + (-1) = 0
Find a Partner Who…
• What charge do alkali metals have? Halogens?
• What are valence electrons?
• Why do alkali and halogens go so well together (two reasons)?
Group 2: Alkaline Earth Metals “Players”

Players:

• Traits:
• 2 valence electrons
• Loses 2 valence electrons +2 charge
• (Almost) always bonds with TWO halogensistas

OR 1 Group 6 nonmetal

Group 8: Noble Gases“The Snobs”

The Snobs:

• Traits:
• 8 valence electrons (Octet Rule)
• NO CHARGE (no drama)
•  NOT REACTIVE
• Bonds with NO ONE
• Too good for anyone else.
In between Groups:Transition Metals
• Scandium to Zinc
• Zinc to Mercury
• Found in middle of table
• Ones in each column = similar properties
• Different charges
• Some are synthetic
• Inner Transition Metals
• Lanthanides and Actinides
• Rare Earth Elements
Elbow Partner
• What do metalloids separate (what are the found between)?
• Why are the noble gasses “snobs?”
• Describe the traits of alkaline earth metals (charge, number of valence electrons).