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PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS NOTES - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS NOTES. Atoms vs. Ions. Atoms = same number P + & E - Ex: (+3) + (-3) = 0 charge is ZERO Ions = same # P + , …but more or less E - Ex: (+3) + (-4) = -1 Ex: (+3) + (-2) = +1 Charge is (+ or -).

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atoms vs ions
Atoms vs. Ions
  • Atoms = same number P+ & E-
    • Ex: (+3) + (-3) = 0
    • charge is ZERO
  • Ions = same # P+,

…but more or less E-

    • Ex: (+3) + (-4) = -1
    • Ex: (+3) + (-2) = +1
    • Charge is (+ or -)

*sodium ion laser is used to determine the temperature in the mesosphere and the lower thermosphere

quick electron lesson
Quick Electron Lesson
  • Electrons are found in the energy levels.
  • Electrons affect the properties of elements
  • Remember atoms have a ZERO CHARGE
  • If an atom has a charge  ONLY affects ELECTRONS
    • # P+ ≠ #E-
  • If Positive (+) charge, TAKE AWAY electrons
  • If Negative (-) charge, ADD ON electrons
ions what and why
Ions: What and Why?
  • An Ion is an atom with a + or -charge
    • Cation = ion with + charge
    • Anion = ion with - charge
  • Goal: fill outermost shell (Octet Rule)
    • Ex. Na = 11 electrons (7 more until full shell)
    • Na+1 = 10 electrons (outermost shell full)
  • Valence Electrons (outermost shell electrons) are used for bonding
how to organize elements
How to organize elements?
  • Early scientists used the properties of elements to sort them into groups.
  • Elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number.
how it works
How It Works
  • Rows (across) = PERIODS
    • Goes in order of ATOMIC NUMBER
    • Determines # energy levels
    • Elements within a period = PROPERTIES CHANGE

Periodic law: the pattern of properties within a period repeats as you move from one period to the next

how it works1
How It Works
  • Columns (up and down) = GROUPS or FAMILIES
    • Determines the # valence electrons
    • Elements within a group = SIMILAR PROPERTIES
3 broad classes of elements
3 Broad Classes of Elements

Metals

Metalloids

Nonmetals

“Staircase”

3 broad classes of elements1
3 Broad Classes of Elements
  • Metals:
    • Good Conductors
    • High Luster or Sheen (Shiny)
    • Ductile
    • Malleable
  • Nonmetals: (Opposite of metals)
  • Metalloids: Act as a metal or nonmetal
metallic trend
Metallic Trend
  • Most metallic elements are Cesium (Cr) and Francium (Fr)

In your journal, outline the periodic table and include the trends.

main groups
Main Groups
  • Alkali Metals
  • Alkaline Metals
  • Transition Metals
  • Metalloids
  • Nonmetals
  • Halogens
  • Noble Gasses
  • Lanthanides
  • Actinides
group 1 alkali metals the gentlemen
Group 1: Alkali Metals“The Gentlemen”
  • Except Hydrogen
  • Traits:
    • 1 valence electron
    • Lose valence electron +1 charge
      • VERY REACTIVE
    • (Almost) always bonds with halogens
group 7 halogens
Group 7: Halogens

“The Ladies”

  • Common Salts:
    • Chlorine (Cl)
    • Bromine (Br)
    • Iodine (I)
  • Traits:
    • 7 valence electrons
    • Gains 1 valence electrons -1 charge
      • VERY REACTIVE
    • Almost awalysbonds with Alkali gentlemen
why they make such a cute couple reason for bonding
Why They Make Such a Cute Couple…Reason for Bonding

Goal: To settle down

Meet the OCTET RULE

Valence electrons = bonding

Alkali Gentlemen= 1 valence electron

Halogen Ladies= 7 valence electrons

in addition charge
In Addition…Charge
  • No Charge = No Drama!
  • Alkali (Sodium) = +1 charge
  • Halogens (Chlorine) = -1 charge
  • NaCl = (+1) + (-1) = 0
find a partner who
Find a Partner Who…
  • What charge do alkali metals have? Halogens?
  • What are valence electrons?
  • Why do alkali and halogens go so well together (two reasons)?
group 2 alkaline earth metals players
Group 2: Alkaline Earth Metals “Players”

Players:

  • Traits:
    • 2 valence electrons
    • Loses 2 valence electrons +2 charge
    • (Almost) always bonds with TWO halogensistas

OR 1 Group 6 nonmetal

group 8 noble gases the snobs
Group 8: Noble Gases“The Snobs”

The Snobs:

  • Traits:
    • 8 valence electrons (Octet Rule)
      • NO CHARGE (no drama)
      •  NOT REACTIVE
    • Bonds with NO ONE
      • Too good for anyone else.
in between groups transition metals
In between Groups:Transition Metals
  • Scandium to Zinc
  • Zinc to Mercury
  • Found in middle of table
  • Ones in each column = similar properties
  • Different charges
  • Some are synthetic
  • Inner Transition Metals
    • Lanthanides and Actinides
      • Rare Earth Elements
elbow partner
Elbow Partner
  • What do metalloids separate (what are the found between)?
  • Why are the noble gasses “snobs?”
  • Describe the traits of alkaline earth metals (charge, number of valence electrons).