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Periodic Table of Elements
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  1. Periodic Table of Elements MEET THE ELEMENTS Pages 124-167 Ch.4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4 and 5.1

  2. Dmitri Mendeleev • He recognized patterns in the element’s approximate atomic masses and their ability to bond with other elements.

  3. http://172.26.64.6/?a=3205&s=00:06:40:24&e=00:07:19:00

  4. Periodic Table • Based on atomic masses and their ability to bond with other elements, Mendeleev constructed the first periodic Table.

  5. The Atom • Nucleus: The core of the atom that contains two different subatomic particles.

  6. The Atom cont… • Protons: Have a positive charge. • The number of protons equals the number of electrons.

  7. The Atom cont… • Neutrons: Have no Charge.

  8. The Atom cont… • Electrons Negative charge. • .

  9. http://172.26.64.6/?a=3205&ch=2

  10. Atomic Numbers, Symbols and Mass Element Symbol 47 Ag Silver 107.868 • Atomic number is the smaller number and the number of protons in the nucleus. Element Name Atomic mass is all the protons and neutrons added together.

  11. How to calculate # of neutrons • Atomic mass - Atomic number = # of neutrons This element is Nitrogen. Its mass is 14. So atomic # of 7, minus atomic mass of 14, equals 7 neutrons. Count the number of protons. What element is it?

  12. How to Calculate Number of Electrons • The number of electrons equal the number of protons. 7 electrons 7 protons

  13. http://172.26.64.6/?a=3205&s=00:07:54:00&e=00:08:13:03 • http://172.26.64.6/?a=3205&s=00:08:24:24&e=00:09:02:00

  14. Please select a Team. • Team 1 • Team 2 • Team 3 • Team 4 • Team 5 • Team 6 • Team 7 • Team 8

  15. 30 0 How many neutrons does Mn (Manganese) have? • 25 • 55 • 7 • 30

  16. 0 of 30 How many Neutrons does K (Potassium) have? • 19 • 20 • 39 • 11 10

  17. How many Protons does Hg Have? 30 • 80 • 200 • 120 0

  18. How many Electrons does Hg Have? 30 • 80 • 200 • 120 0

  19. Team Scores

  20. Isotopes • When atoms of the same element have a different number of neutrons

  21. Valence Electrons • The electrons on the outermost ring or energy level that can be shared or transferred with other atoms to make compounds.

  22. Valence Electrons and Bonding (ch. 5.1 pgs. 176-182) The number of valence electrons in an atom of an element determines many properties of that element, including the ways in which the atom can bond with other atoms.

  23. 0 of 30 When an atom has a different # of neutrons it’s called a… • Ion • Isotope • Proton • Element

  24. 30 0 What subatomic particle influences an elements ability to bond? • Protons • Neutrons • Valence Electrons • Nucleus

  25. Take out a piece of paper, stand up and stretch

  26. WARM-UP • What electrons influence an element’s ability to bond with other elements to make compounds? • What information does the periodic table tell us? • What is an Isotope? • Calculate the number of neutrons in the following elements: Gold (Au), Mercury (Hg), Potassium (K) and Cobalt (Co).

  27. Groups –Families elements in a group have very similar characteristics i.e. bonding, reactivity, valence electrons Periods- elements in a period are not alike, but gradually change as you move from left to right.

  28. http://172.26.64.6/?a=3205&s=00:09:01:00&e=00:09:55:15 • http://172.26.64.6/?a=3205&s=00:09:55:15&e=00:10:35:11

  29. METALS • Almost 75% of all elements are classified as metals.

  30. Properties of Metals • Conductors: Metals are good at conducting electricity. • Malleable: Ability to bend or pound into shapes.

  31. Properties of Metals • Ductile: Pull or stretch into wire. • Many are shiny, hard and magnetic.

  32. Please select a Team. • Team 1 • Team 2 • Team 3 • Team 4 • Team 5 • Team 6 • Team 7 • Team 8

  33. 0 of 30 What are the horizontal rows called on the periodic table? • Periods • Groups/families

  34. 30 0 0 What is a characteristic of metals? • Gas • Stable • Good conductor • Brittle

  35. 0 of 30 Metals are malleable, which means… • Pound or mold into shape • Brittle • Stretch into wire

  36. 0 of 30 What do all elements in a group/family have in common? • Same # of Valence electrons • Same # of protons • Same # of rings/shells/energy levels

  37. 0 of 30 What do all elements in a PERIOD have in common? • Same # of Valence electrons • Same # of protons • Same # of rings/shells/energy levels

  38. Participant Scores

  39. Team Scores

  40. Alloys • Metals can easily combine into different mixtures of elements.

  41. Examples of alloys • Steel: Fe+C+Cr+V • Bronze: Sn+Cu • Brass: Cu+Zn • White Gold: Ag+Au+Zn+Cu • Yellow gold: Au+Cu+Ni+Zn

  42. ALKALI METALS-Group 1 • So reactive that they are never found isolated in nature, only combined with other elements.

  43. ALKALI METALS-Group 1 • Characteristics Properties: • Soft • Shiny • One valance: electron makes them very reactive.

  44. Write down the following: Reactivity of Hydrogen demo • Purpose:To isolate andobserve the reactivity of an alkali element: H (hydrogen). • Materials:250mL flask, mossy zinc, hydrochloric acid, balloon, string, funnel, meter stick, and matches.

  45. Place enough zinc into the flask to cover the bottom. • Place the funnel on the mouth of the flask. • Pour enough HCL into the flask to cover the zinc (about 2cm high) • Quickly, but carefully remove the funnel and place the balloon over the mouth of the flask. • Let the gas fill the balloon. • Tie the string around the balloon and remove the balloon from the flask. • Tie the balloon to a safe place. • Attach a match to the end of a meter stick and light the balloon with the lit match.

  46. 30 0 The Hydrogen reacted so violently because it has… • 3 protons • 1 neutron • 2 valence electrons • 1 valence electron

  47. 0 of 30 What family is Hydrogen in? • Alkali • Alkaline Earth • Transition • Halogens

  48. 30 0 The reaction was:Zn + HCl  ZnCl + H2What is the correctly balanced equation? • Zn + H2Cl  ZnCl + H2 • 2Zn + 2HCl  2ZnCl + H2 • Zn + HCl  ZnCl + H2 • 2Zn + 3HCl  2ZnCl + H2

  49. 30 0 The reaction was:H2 + O2  H2OWhat is the correctly balanced equation? • H2 + O2 H2O • H2 + O2 H2O2 • 2H2 + O2 2H2O

  50. Alkaline Earth Metals • Group 2 metals. • Very reactive, not as reactive as alkali metals due to having one more valence electron. • Ca: important for bones.