Unit III Socratic SeminarThe Americans, Chapters 12-15History Alive!, Ch. 26-33 MNR’s “talking points” January 28-February 11, 2014
Socratic SeminarScoring Rubric (40 major points) Content(Verbal) Advanced (10-9) -displays an extensive command of accurate historic information -answers, examples, comparisons, & “connections” to EUs & EQs are detailed & relevant -analysis of issues and events, plus their effects, show a high level of thought/insight Proficient (8.5-7) -displays an adequate command of mostly accurate historic information -answers, ex., comparisons, & “connections” to EU/EQs are somewhat detailed or relevant -analysis of issues, events, or their effects, show evidence of thought/insight Basic (<7 pts) -displays limited command of accurate historic information -answers, ex., comparisons, & “connections” to EU/EQs are NOT detailed and/or relevant -analysis of issues, events, and/or their effects, show little evidence of thought/insight
Socratic SeminarScoring Rubric (40 major points) Speaking & Listening Skills Advanced (10-9) -contributions are delivered efficiently with highly effective volume and clarity -eye contact and body language show excellent engagement and active listening -verbal contributions address others’ points of view and reflect awareness of time limits Proficient (8.5-7) -contributions are delivered with acceptable efficiently with effective volume and clarity -eye contact and body language show some engagement and active listening -verbal contributions may reflect awareness of others’ points of view and/or time limits Basic (<7 pts) -contributions are not delivered efficiently; volume and/or clarity are ineffective -eye contact and/or body language show little or no engagement/active listening -verbal contributions do not reflect awareness of others’ points of view and/or time limits
Socratic SeminarScoring Rubric (40 major points) Visual Aid(PowerPoint slides) Advanced (10-9) -precise and highly effective verbiage displayed in questions and “answers” or prompts -images, text, & effects utilized effectively to create content-filled & appealing slide(s) -highly effective utilization of slide(s) during performance exhibit mastery of EUs and EQs Proficient (8.5-7) -acceptable verbiage displayed in questions and “answers” or prompts -images, text, & effects create acceptable slide(s); content and/or appeal may be lacking -utilization of slide(s) during performance exhibit familiarity with EUs and EQs Basic (<7pts) -verbiage displayed in questions and “answers” or prompts is confusing or ineffective -images, text, and/or effects not utilized effectively to create detailed or appealing slide(s) -slide(s) not used much or at all during performance; does not exhibit awareness of EU/EQs
Chapter 12 • Red Scare communism radicals Palmer raids hysteria ACLU • isolationism (isolationist) immigration limits Ku Klux Klan • strikes (Boston Police, Steel, Coal Miners, AFL) • cars (automobile culture, suburbs, etc.) airplanes • Electricity • advertising (radio) consumer debt (credit) • income differences (workers vs. management) • Harding (normalcy vs. scandals) Coolidge (“roaring” 1920s) • OTHER:
Ch. 12: Politics of the Roaring Twenties(p. 410-431) History Alive! Ch. 26 (p. 330-341) Understanding Postwar Tensions Ch. 27 (p. 342-351) The Politics of Normalcy
Who am I? What do you remember about me & my presidency? CALVIN COOLIDGE Stepping into office in 1923, the tightlipped Vermonter was respected for his solemnity and wisdom. Coolidge supported American business and favored what he called “a constructive economy.” Known for his strength of character, Coolidge forced the resignation of Attorney General Daugherty and other high officials who had created scandal in office. Shortly after Coolidge was elected, his son died of blood poisoning. Coolidge later wrote, “The power and the glory of the presidency went with him.” When he decided not to seek reelection in 1928, Coolidge stumped the nation. Keeping in character, he said, “Goodby, I have had a very enjoyable time in Washington.” (Republican, 1923-1929) Warren G. Harding (Republican, 1921-1923)looked presidential, but he is considered one of the least successful presidents. The Harding administration appealed to America’s desire for calm and peace after the war, but resulted in scandal. He died in office, most likely of a stroke.
demobilization recession radicalism Palmer Raids demobilization: the act of discharging forces from military service or use recession: period in which there is a decline in economic activity & prosperity radicalism: a point of view favoring extreme change, especially in social or economic structure Palmer Raids: conducted by Justice Department attorney J. Edgar Hoover at the instruction of U.S. Attorney General Mitchell Palmer, a series of unauthorized raids on homes, businesses, and meeting places of suspected subversives that resulted in the arrest of 6,000 radicals, often without any evidence against them.
quota system normalcy fiscal policy speculators quota system: established by the Emergency Immigration Act of 1921, a system limiting immigration to the United States by permitting no more immigrants from a country than 3 percent of the number of that country's residents living in the United States in 1910; the Immigration Act of 1924 reduced the quota to 2 percent of the number of a country's residents living in the United States in 1890 normalcy: the concept of life as it was before World War I, when the nation could focus on its own domestic prosperity, which Republican candidate Warren G. Harding promoted during the 1920 presidential election campaign and which helped him win the presidency] ." fiscal policy: the approach of a government to taxes and government spending speculators: a person who takes the risk of buying something in the hope of reselling it for a higher price
A PERSONAL VOICE A. MITCHELL PALMER “ The blaze of revolution was sweeping over every American institution of law and order . . . . eating its way into the homes of the American workman, its sharp tongues of revolutionary heat . . . licking the altars of the churches, leaping into the belfry of the school bell, crawling into the sacred corners of American homes, . . . Burning up the foundations of society.” —“The Case Against the Reds”
Interpret this graph… • …using several of the following: • nativism •isolationism •communism • •anarchists •Sacco and Vanzetti •quota system
The elephant, shaped like a teapot here, is the symbol of the Republican Party (Grand Old Party). The cartoonist implies that Republicans were responsible for the Teapot Dome scandal. Teapot Dome Scandal: a political scandal in which U.S. secretary of the interior Albert Fall leased national oil reserves in Elk Hills, California, and Teapot Dome, Wyoming, to two companies that had bribed him Harding’s secretary of the interior, Albert Fall, sold oil-drilling rights on federal land in Teapot Dome, Wyoming, and elsewhere in exchange for bribes. Americans were furious when they learned of the scandal. Like this cartoonist, many saw the scandal steamrolling right toward Harding’s White House.
Fact or Fiction? “The KKK was devoted to “100 percent Americanism.” By 1924, KKK membership reached 1.5 million “white male persons, native-born gentile citizens.” FICTION: It was 4.5 MILLION!!! The Klan also believed in keeping blacks “in their place,” destroying saloons, opposing unions, and driving Roman Catholics, Jews, and foreign-born people out of the country. FACT!
The Americans, Sec. 3 The new president, Calvin Coolidge, fit into the pro-business spirit of the 1920s very well. It was he who said, “the chief business of the American people is ?????. business “. . . The man who builds a factory builds a temple—the man who works there worships there.” Both Coolidge and his Republican successor, ????? , favored government policies that would keep taxes ????? and business profits up, and give businesses more available ????? in order to expand. Herbert Hoover down (low) credit ($$) Coolidge & Hoover’s goal was maximize government interference in business in order to allow private enterprise to flourish. FACT or FICTION? FICTION: Their goal was to keep government interference in business to a minimum and to allow private enterprise to flourish. Coolidge’s administration continued to place high tariffs on foreign imports, which helped American manufacturers. At the same time, wages were rising because of new technology, and so was productivity. FACT or FICTION? FACT
Ch. 13 The Roaring Life of the 1920s(p. 432-461) History Alive! Ch. 28 (p. 353-367) Popular Culture in the Roaring Twenties Ch. 29 (p. 369-379) Clash Between Traditionalism & Modernism
Chapter 13 • Urbanization • Prohibition : 18th Amendment bootleggers speakeasies • Christian fundamentalism Scopes trial (1920) • flappers women workersmarriage/family 19th amendment discrimination • mass media (radio, movies, newspapers) • leisure time (sports, movies, music, drama, literature, etc.) • Great Migration Harlem Renaissance NAACP (W.E.B. DuBois) Marcus Garvey • OTHER:
What 3 “things” made the 1920s a “ROARING” era? Henry Ford inspired America’s love affair with the automobile. In the 1920s, Ford’s Model T’s were plain but affordable. When other manufacturers began to produce better-looking cars, Ford stopped making the Model T and instead made the Model A—another great success. economic prosperity technological advances cultural boom David Sarnoff was a leader in the growth of radio and television. He pioneered the development of radio programming, bringing news, music, tears, and laughter into homes across the nation. Duke Ellington, shown here at the piano, was known for his good looks and elegance, as well as for his brilliant music. His band played at the Cotton Club for four years straight. “I am not playing ‘jazz,’” he once told an interviewer. “I am trying to play the natural feelings of a people.”
traditionalist modernist fundamentalism popular culture traditionalist: a person who has deep respect for long-held cultural and religious values modernist: a person who embraces new ideas, styles, and social trends fundamentalism: the belief that scripture should be read as the literal word of God and followed without question popular culture: the culture of ordinary people, including music, visual art, literature, and entertainment, that is shaped by industries that spread information and ideas, especially the mass media
Volstead Act speakeasy consumer culture speculators Volstead Act: a law passed by Congress in 1919 to enforce the Eighteenth Amendment, which prohibited the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages speakeasy: a secret club that sold alcohol during the era of prohibition consumer culture: a culture that views the consumption of large quantities of goods as beneficial to the economy and a source of personal happiness speculators: a person who takes the risk of buying something in the hope of reselling it for a higher price
A PERSONAL VOICE Clarence Darrow & William Jennings Bryan Scopes trial: a criminal trial, held in Dayton, Ohio, in 1925, that tested the constitutionality of a Tennessee law that banned the teaching of Darwin's theory of evolution in schools; science teacher John Scopes was found guilty and fined for his conduct, leaving the Tennessee law intact
John Scopes did not testify during his trial for violating Tennessee’s anti-evolution law. But after being found guilty, he addressed the judge: “Your honor, I feel I have been convicted of violating an unjust statute. I will continue in the future, as I have in the past, to oppose this law in any way I can. Any other action would be in violation of my idea of academic freedom —that is, to teach the truth as guaranteed in our Constitution.”
Interpret these graphs… • …and if possible, connect them to several of the following: • flapper •double standard • education • 19th amendment • demobilization • domestic/family changes • stereotypes
THE MOVE NORTH Between 1910 and 1920, in a movement known as the Great Migration, hundreds of thousands of African Americans had uprooted themselves from their homes in the South and moved north to the big cities in search of (industrial) jobs. By the end of the decade, 5.2 million of the nation’s 12 million African Americans—over 40 percent—lived in cities.
What is this (BELOW) and how does it relates to the Harlem Renaissance? I've known rivers: I've known rivers ancient as the world and older than the flow of human blood in human veins. My soul has grown deep like the rivers. I bathed in the Euphrates when dawns were young.I built my hut near the Congo and it lulled me to sleep.I looked upon the Nile and raised the pyramids above it.I heard the singing of the Mississippi when Abe Lincoln went down to New Orleans, and I've seen its muddy bosom turn all golden in the sunset. I've known rivers: Ancient, dusky rivers.My soul has grown deep like the rivers. What kind of metaphor, symbol, or image related to life for African-Americans can be found in the poem? —Langston Hughes, "The Negro Speaks of Rivers," 1920 Langston Hughes wrote poetry, plays, and fiction that captured the anguish of African Americans' longing for equality. He composed one of his best-known poems while traveling to New York at the age of 17.
When you see or hear… you say (think of)??? Louis Armstrong was famous for his extended trumpet solos. People also loved Armstrong’s gravelly voice. Contemporary jazz musician Wynton Marsalis has said of Armstrong, “You’re talking about the deepest human feeling and the highest level of musical sophistication in the same man.” Fans called Bessie Smith the “Empress of the Blues.” Orphaned at a young age, she began performing as a child. Gospel singer Mahalia Jackson remembered hearing Smith: “I feel she was having troubles like me. That’s why it was such a comfort for the people of the South to hear her.” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xO3k-S_pqK4 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=meuwKhPGItk
Fact or Fiction? “In 1914, approximately 1 million American students attended high school. By 1926, that number had risen to nearly 4 million, an increase sparked by prosperous times and higher educational standards for industry jobs.” FACT! The public schools met a challenge in the 1920s—teaching the children of new immigrant families. The years before World War I had seen the largest stream of immigrants in the nation’s history— close to 100,000 a year. FICTION: one MILLION!!!
The Americans, Ch. 13, Sec. 4 Many African Americans who migrated north moved to Harlem, a neighborhood on the Upper West Side of ?????. In the 1920s, Harlem became the world’s largest black urban community, with residents from the South, the West Indies, Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Haiti. James Weldon Johnson described Harlem as the capital of black America. New York’s Manhattan Island Like many other urban neighborhoods, Harlem suffered from ?????, ?????, ?????, but its problems in the 1920s were eclipsed by a flowering of creativity called the Harlem Renaissance, a literary and artistic movement celebrating ????? culture. overcrowding, unemployment, and poverty African-American The Harlem Renaissance provided a foundation of African-American intellectualism to which African-American writers, artists, and musicians contribute today. FACT or FICTION? FACT
Chapter 14 • Great Depression failing industries & farming problems • stock market “Black Tuesday” • tariffs bank failures unemployment • “Dust Bowl” • Hoover “Hoovervilles” Reconstruction • Finance Corporation (RFC) Bonus Army • OTHER:
Ch. 14: The Great Depression(p. 462-485) History Alive! Ch. 30 (p. 382-391) The Causes of the Great Depression Ch. 31 (p. 392-399) The Response to the Economic Collapse Ch. 32 (p. 400-411) Human Impact of the Great Depression
Who am I? What do you remember about me & my presidency? “ We in America are nearer to the final triumph over poverty than ever before. ” In 1932, Franklin Roosevelt (Democrat, 1932-1944)launched an ambitious campaign tour of the country by train. At each stop, bands played his cheerful campaign song, “Happy Days Are Here Again.” To the attendees, Roosevelt gave compelling speeches that he carefully planned with the help of a group of advisors nicknamed the Brain Trust. Herbert Hoover had no plans to get out and campaign in 1932. A sitting president typically ran a “front porch” campaign, leaving the White House for only a speech or two. However, as Hoover’s troubles mounted, he could not remain idle. By early October, he decided to take to the road in a campaign tour that included about 200 speeches. • HERBERT HOOVER • (Republican, 1929-1932)
buying on margin broker bull vs. bear market overproduction “vs.” underconsumption buying on margin: buying stock by paying a percentage of a stock's price and borrowing the rest of the money from a broker, allowing one to make greater profits if the stock does well broker: a person who buys and sells stocks for clients bull market: a period in which stock prices are steadily rising bear market: a period in which stock prices are steadily decreasing overproduction: a situation in which more goods are being produced than people can afford to buy underconsumption: a situation in which people are purchasing fewer goods than the economy is producing
conservative vs. liberal conservative: someone who cherishes and seeks to preserve traditional customs and values; conservatives in the 1930s valued included self-reliance, individual responsibility, and personal liberty. Conservatives tend to prefer the status quo, or current conditions, to abrupt changes. They accept change, but only in moderation. Depression-era conservatives opposed large governmental efforts to effect change, which they felt challenged their values. liberal: someone committed to the expansion of liberty; By the start of the Progressive Era, many liberals believed that the government should play a role in regulating economic affairs. As the Depression set in, liberals looked to the government to expand its powers once again to protect individual liberty. However, now they defined liberty as freedom from hunger and poverty.
This graph shows how the business cycle repeats itself over time. The cycle begins with a period of economic expansion. In time, economic activity peaks, and then the business cycle moves into a period of decline. After the downturn reaches its lowest point, a new period of economic expansion begins. As the graph to the right shows, the index of industrial stocks plunged between its peak in 1929 and 1932, losing nearly two thirds of its value. A stock index measures the performance of stock prices over time. ???????????????? INTERPRET any of these graphs
???? ??????? ???????? ?? ??????????
Fact or Fiction? 16 million On October 29, 1929 over 6 million shares were “dumped” in a day, and by mid-November roughly $30 million dollars were lost in the stock market. $30 billion FICTION: 16 MILLION shares $30 BILLION lost!!!!
Which of these is FICTION? CAUSES OF THE GREAT DEPRESSION Although historians and economists differ on the main causes of the Great Depression, most cite a common set of factors, among them: • tariffs and war debt policies that cut down the foreign market for American goods • a crisis in the farm sector • the availability of easy credit • equal distribution of income These factors led to falling demand for consumer goods, even as newly mechanized factories produced more products. The federal government contributed to the crisis by keeping interest rates low, thereby allowing companies and individuals to borrow easily and build up large debts. Some of this borrowed money was used to buy the stocks that later led to the crash. FICTIONequaldistribution of income…UNEQUAL
What is being described here? The drought and winds of the DUST BOWL’s devastation lasted for more than seven years. The dust storms in Kansas, Colorado, New Mexico, Nebraska, the Dakotas, Oklahoma, and Texas were a great hardship—but only one of many—that Americans faced during the Great Depression. In the 1930s, drought and windstorms turned much of the Great Plains into a “Dust Bowl.” Farmers watched helplessly as winds picked up precious topsoil and blew it away in massive dust clouds. The drought affected much more of the country than just the Dust Bowl, but this region suffered the most.
Chapter 15 • FDR New Deal (First & Second) • NIRA (NRA) AAA CCC WPA • “fireside chats” • Social Security FDIC Tennessee Valley Authority • women & minorities under the New Deal New Deal coalition? • union membership (AFL-CIO) • conservatives liberals • OTHER:
Ch. 15: The New Deal(p. 486-523) History Alive! Ch. 33 (p. 412-427) The New Deal and its Legacy
THE HUNDRED DAYS Fact or Fiction? On taking office, the Roosevelt administration launched a period of intense activity known as the Hundred Days, lasting from March 9 to June 16, 1932. During this period, Congress passed more than 5 major pieces of New Deal legislation. These laws, and others that followed, significantly expanded the federal government’s role in the nation’s economy. FICTION: 1933…won election of 1932 against Herbert Hoover withan overwhelming victory, capturing nearly 23 million votes to Hoover’s nearly 16 million. FICTION: 15 major new laws
Laissez-faire vs. deficit spending right wing vs. left wing New Deal Coalition welfare state Laissez-faire: a policy that allows businesses to operate with very little interference from the government. deficit spending: a government's practice of spending more money than it receives in revenue, the difference being made up by borrowing right wing: the conservative side of the political spectrum left wing:the liberal side of the political spectrum New Deal Coalition: a political partnership formed during the 1930s among various social and political groups in support of the New Deal, the Democratic Party, and Franklin D. Roosevelt. Besides women and minority groups, the coalition included industrial workers, farmers, immigrants, reformers, southern whites, and city dwellers. welfare state: a social system in which the government takes responsibility for the economic well being of its citizens by providing programs and direct assistance
In this photograph, a Texas couple listens to one of Roosevelt’s fireside chats. With his radio addresses, FDR revolutionized the relationship between the president and the people. After his first fireside chat, hundreds of thousands of letters flooded into the White House. Thereafter, FDR received about 6,000 letters a day. To manage the volume of mail, the White House increased its mailroom staff from one or two clerks to dozens of mail handlers.
Huey Long, “Share our wealth” speech, 1934 “It is our estimate that 4 percent of the American people own 85 percent of the wealth of America . . . Any man with a thimble-full of sense ought to know that if you take 85 percent off of that table and give it to one man that you are bound to have two thirds of the people starving because they haven’t got enough to eat. How many men ever went to a barbecue and would let one man take off the table what’s intended for nine tenths of the people to eat? The only way to be able to feed the balance of the people is to make that man come back and bring back some of that grub that he ain’t got no business with!”
What are the three “R’s” of FDR’s New Deal? Relief Can you “see” or recall examples of programs or initiatives that demonstrate FDR’s goals for America? Recovery Reform
History Alive!, p. 424 Who benefitted from the New Deal?