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##### Mathematical Operations Using Bacteria

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**Mathematical Operations Using Bacteria**By Anuradha Sahu Erin Duffy**Biological Computing**• The process of Biocomputing uses systems of biologically derived molecules such as proteins and DNA, to perform computational operations. • The two types of Biological Computing are: • DNA Computing • Bacterial Computing**Background of DNA Computing**• Leonard Adleman was the founder of DNA Computing • He founded DNA Computing by solving the Hamilton Path Problem in 1994 • He used DNA because they were similar to computers • DNA Computing is the use of DNA the way silicon based chips are used**Bacterial Computing**• This is very similar to DNA computing,but rather than using DNA we use bacteria • Bacteria can also be used in place of silicon based chips • This can store, transfer and receive data along with solving mathematical problems**Logic Gates**• Founded logic gates such as the NAND, AND and NOR gates • These gates have helped scientists to control bacteria • They can tell the circuit when to stop or start based on if both chemicals, one or none are present**Bacterial Computing Research**• Scientists used circuits to do mathematical operations • They founded that only one circuit would do one type of mathematical operation • Changing the promoters or transcriptional factors, changes the rate and reaction of molecules • Here is the circuit for the operation In(x+1)**CIrcuit with positive feedback**Circuit without positive feedback**Graph of the Functions**• Used analog circuits instead of digital circuits which can take in multiple inputs • Analog circuits can sense concentration and also the molecules • To calculate the output, they used the concentration of the mCherry and the number of input molecules to make a graph**Goals**• Their goal wasn’t to have bacteria solve mathematical problems but to prove they could control the bacteria this way • They would like to create new remedies for cancer and even create a computer out of bacteria**Bibliography**• http://www.scilogs.com/allotrope/bioengineers-go-retro-to-build-a-calculator-from-living-cells/ • http://www.popsci.com/science/article/2013-05/cell-can-do-division-compute-logarithms-and-take-square-roots • http://animalnewyork.com/2013/scientists-build-working-calculator-from-living-bacterial-cells/ • http://bli-research-in-synthetic-biology-and-biotechnology.wikispaces.com/file/view/nature12148.pdf/442119548/nature12148.pdf • http://faculty.uml.edu/klevasseur/courses/92.555/burnt_pancake.pdf • http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/02/130207074254.htm • http://www.nature.com/news/how-to-turn-living-cells-into-computers-1.12406