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Classical India and Persia. The Land of various Empires and Buddha. Aryans conquered the Indian Subcontinent by 1500 B.C. They may have crossed the Himalayas from central Asia (this is still up for debate) They were nomadic herders and warriors

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classical india and persia

Classical India and Persia

The Land of various Empires and Buddha

the aryan invasion

Aryans conquered the Indian Subcontinent by 1500 B.C.

  • They may have crossed the Himalayas from central Asia (this is still up for debate)
  • They were nomadic herders and warriors
  • They brought with them Hinduism and the caste system
  • By 900 B.C. they developed city states and a form of writing called Sanskrit which was only taught to higher castes
The Aryan Invasion
hinduism

Major beliefs of Hinduism

  • Many gods but they all come from one central God
  • At death a person’s soul is reborn into another living thing creating an endless cycle of rebirth (reincarnation)
  • Karma is your behavior in life and good karma means better placement in the next life
  • Hindu’s belief in sacred objects such as the cow and the Ganges River which has the power to wash away evil and sin
Hinduism
caste system

Priests

Warriors

Landowners

Peasants

Untouchables

  • The Aryans created this to secure their stature among the Dravidians (only Aryans could occupy the higher castes)
  • Caste is based on birth, and one could only move up through reincarnation
Caste System
buddhism

Began around 500 B.C. by Siddhartha Gautama

  • He was a wealthy prince in Nepal who was disgusted by the suffering around him, so he left it all for truth
  • He realized after 6 years of searching that all suffering is from human selfishness
  • You become enlightened by blocking out selfish desires and accepting the world as it is
  • Reincarnation is believed and you escape it through following the Eightfold path
  • Buddhism spread rapidly throughout southern Asia
  • Things to look up and read for your notebook(4 noble truths, Eightfold path, read the Sutras)
Buddhism
the mauryan empire 321 b c 232 c e

This was one of the greatest Hindu Empires from Afghanistan to the Ganges

  • King Chandragupta founded it and it challenged the Greeks
  • Asoka was the kings grandson and next great ruler who expanded the empire through eight years of war
  • After seeing how terrible war was he converted to Buddhism and focused on helping his people, and spreading Buddhism
  • He build hospitals, roads, schools, Buddhist shrines, and decreed all religions should live peacefully
  • After Asoka’s death the Empire slowly fell apart
The Mauryan Empire(321 B.C.- 232 C.E)
the gupta empire 320 a d 535 a d

The Gupta family emerged by uniting the Ganges territory, and promoting peace, prosperity, and trade with foreign lands

  • This time is sometimes called the, “Golden Age of Hindu Culture” due to its peace and prosperity
  • Universities, arts, literature, and culture exploded
  • Scientific discoveries such as a round Earth that rotated on it axis, solar calendar, medicine, skin grafts,and bones being set
  • Mathematic discoveries included zero, infinity, decimals, and further spread Arabic numbers
  • They prospered until around 500 A.D. when the Huns invaded
The Gupta Empire(320 A.D.- 535 A.D.)
persian empire 2000 b c 100 b c

550 B.C. Cyrus the Great united the Persians and Medes, then expanded the empire from Babylonia to the Indus

  • Darius (Cyrus’ Son) built roads, unified weights and measurements, established capital cities
  • At 3000 miles long Persia was divided in provinces ruled by loyal officials that paid tribute and taxes to the king
  • Zoroastrianism led by Zoroaster was the main religion that taught there are two gods (one of good and one of evil)
  • Accomplishments included coined money, over a thousand miles of roads, and a postal system to help with communication
Persian Empire(2000 B.C.- 100 B.C.)