Classical India Chapter #3 AP World History
Key Events- Ancient India • Early River Valley Civilization Approx. 5000BCE • River & tributaries are fed by seasonal monsoon rains • Like the Nile, Tigris, and Euphrates rivers, the flooding Indus River brought rich soil for agriculture. • By 3000BCE: • Irrigation key technology • Cultural Hearth develops • Rise of cities & civilizations • Indus/Harappan 2800-1800BCE • Mohenjo-Daro • Mauryan BCE & Gupta Empires CE • Origin of major religions, Hinduism, Buddhism, & Jainism
“Political” : State Building , Expansion, & Conflict: • structures & forms of governance • Type of system • Indus/Harappan: (Approx. 2800-1800 B.C.E.) Little is known, but city construction points to well-organized government. • Aryans: (1500-500 B.C.E.) Warriors, Politically, fragmented, separate kinship groups, independent groups, fought native Dravidians, Had a Chief called “Raja” military/religious structure.
P: State Building , Expansion, & Conflict cont…. • Mauryan: (322-185 B.C.E.) Chandragupta Maurya united most of India because of Alexander the Great’s invasion. He was a monarch who ruled with help of a large imperial army, grandfather of Ashokawho conquered more and turned to Buddhism. Had a centralized government • Gupta Empire: (320-480 C.E.) Samudraguptra (ruled 335-375) and his son Chandragupta II (375-415) Monarchy, but less centralized, smaller regional government than Mauryan.
The Indus/Harappan Civilization 2800 BCE - 1800 BCE
Aryan Migration • pastoral depended on their cattle. • warriors horse-drawn chariots.
The Mauryan Empire 321 BCE – 185 BCE
Creation, expansion, and interaction of “Economic” systems • Agricultural & pastoral production • Indus/Harappan: Advanced system of wheat, rye, peas, (rice?) • Cotton was cultivated, domesticated animals: chickens, cattle, goats, sheep • Aryans: Invading Greeks wrote, “good pastures & fruits.” • Mauryan : Large state farms, granaries • Gupta Empire: Cash Crops: sugar, cotton, pepper, & cinnamon • Trade & Commerce • Indus/Harappan: The agricultural success allowed cities like Mohenjo-Daro & Harappa to develop into major trading centers, (Small carts) • Contacts in Mesopotamia, China, S.E. Asia, S. India, & Afghanistan! • Port of Lothal, important, 700 foot dock! • Aryans: Great trade city of Taxila (As described by the Greeks) • Mauryan: Large state farms, granaries, shipyards, and spinning and weaving factories. • Gupta Empire: Busy trade route between Middle East & China came under the protection of the Gupta Empire.
Creation, expansion, and interaction of “Economic” systems cont… • Labor system • Indus/Harappan: Judging by the size of the cities, jobs were extensive, but craftsman seemed inferior to those in Egypt and Mesopotamia. • Aryans: Non-Aryans worked similar to slaves, plus there were slaves too. • Industrialization • Indus/Harappan: Casted tools, weapons in bronze, but lacked swords, stone for arrowheads, tips of swords were too tin to be effective • Aryans: Great trade city of Taxila • Mauryan : Capital city of Pataliputra, 22 miles of wooden walls, 570 towers, & 64 gates
Development & Interaction of Cultures • “Religions” Founder, Sacred text, Key beliefs, Sacred Place, Sacred structure, Universal or ethnic, Diffusion/ spread, why? • Indus/Harappan: Polytheism, Priests (ruling class) meditation btwn people & dods. Little known about gods, but one of the gods is depicted on seals naked with a horned head, in a posturing position (yoga) a mother goddess also • Aryans: (Vedic and Epic ages) brought to India distinctive religious ideas of early Brahman, which became Hinduism/Buddhism/Jainism • Mauryan: Buddhism became the main religion in India temporarily when Ashoka was king. Missionaries sent to other countries. • Gupta: Brought back Hinduism as the country’s ‘religion’ bought tolerated all faiths. • Belief systems, Philosophies, & ideologies- Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism (Comparison) • Science & Key Technologies- Indus/Harappan: sophisticated sewage system with canals,
Development & Interaction of Cultures cont… • Science & Key Technologies- Indus/Harappan: sophisticated sewage system with canals, house plumbing • Aryans: Fast 2-wheeled chariots, bronze swords & spears, later iron too defeat enemies, • Mauryan: Ashoka’s building of roads, with trees, and watering holes/wells for humans and animals alike. • Gupta- Arabic numerals were actually from India; “place-value” notation based on 10 system (Eurasia) • Architecture/Buildings- Indus/Harappan: 34 foot wide streets! Huge Baths, well organized cities & Fortified granaries, bricks throughout region 4x2x1. • Mauryan: Pillar Edicts w/ 3 Lions (Now the national symbol of India), 84, 000 stupas, huge rock edicts (billboards) along roads/trade routes • Art -Indus/Harappan: Little art except for carved figurines of people & animals (fertility) • Aryans: Mostly Religious items • Mauryan : Pillar Edicts & Lions- 1st examples of Indian Art to survive since Indus Civilization. • Gupta- Kings were patrons of the arts, Sanskrit preserved, Famous Poet Kalidasa (380-459), Wrote poems in verse, best works: ShakuntalaandThe Cloud Messenger.
The Vedas • 1200 BCE-600 BCE. • written in SANSKRIT. • Hindu core of beliefs: • hymns and poems. • religious prayers. • magical spells. • lists of the gods and goddesses. Rig Veda oldest work
Development & transformation of social structures “Culture” • Gender Roles and relations (Women’s roles, status of Elite, non elites) • Dravidian: Appeared to have a Matrilineal society • Aryans: A lot to do with social status, (early tribes shared leadership), seemed to have been treated favorably than later Indian society. When line of succession started to go throw the male line, women began losing their status. • Mauryan: Government controlled prostitution • Family & kinship (Clans) & Racial & Ethic constructions/Ethnic classes • Later Code of Manu & Hindu Caste system • Social & Economics classes • Indus/Harappan: Evidence points to the existence of social classes (Houses different sizes, stories, larger had brick ovens, courtyard & a well) • A priestly class ruled cities,
Development & transformation of social structures “Culture” cont.. • Social & Economics classes • Aryans: 1st came – 1) Raja, 2) Priest, 3) warrior nobility, 4) common tribesman, then 5) non-aryans worked like slaves • 2nd came the (Caste system, hereditary, unchangeable) “Varna” (color) describes classes (See diagram) “Jati” further division in groups • Purpose: to enforce rules about social behavior. • Mauryan : Under Buddhism, caste system wavered, King and some officials, but after Mauryan failed- Code of Manu: laid down Family Caste system (150 CE) • Gupta: Caste System returned with Hinduism & Code of Manu
Highest- Priests & Scholars________________ Purusha’s Thighs, land- Owners, _______ Merchants, Artisains Feet, Peasants,_____ Laborers Purusha’s arms-Warriors & gov’t officials Varna (Social Hierarchy) Brahmins Kshatriyas Vaishyas Shudras Pariahs [Harijan] Untouchables
Development & transformation of social structures “Culture” • Communication: • Language: Indus??, Native Dravidian; Aryans: spoke an early version of Sanskrit • Writing system: • Indus/Harappan:(400+ symbols)Writing still Undecipherable! • Aryans:Sanskrit writing, (Rigveda) earliest Indian Literature, consisted of epics and religious texts. • Some Arabic writing came into India via Persian invasion 513 BCE. • Mauryan: Ashoka’s Rock & Pillar Edicts
Harappan Writing Undecipherable to date.
“Interactions” between Humans and environment • Population Change (Demography) – Huge population increase over the Aryan, Mauryan, & Gupta civilizations. • Diseases- None noted, but possibly, something brought down the Indus/Harappan. • Migrations • Indus/Harappan: Came from? Went? • Aryans: Came from north of the Black Sea area around 1000BCE, by 500BCE they were Deccan Plateau at first were herders, farmers, warriors, priests • Mauryan: This empire came about because of the Alexander the Great’s invasion/migration, and setting up a country in Bactria, Chandragupta defeated Seleucus one Alexander’s Lieutenants! • Gupta Empire- started to fail because of the migration of central Asian nomads called the (White) Huns (starting about 450 C.E.) into the area. • Settlement patterns: Native Dravidians • Technology (impact on environment) – Irrigation, building of cities and roads. Smelting of metals etc..
Continuity & Change-over-Time-(C.C.O.T) • Continuities: • Early Cultural Hearth • Irrigation based advanced, settled urban cultures • Conflict between settled and nomadic cultures • Aryan and later slavery similar to Egypt, but could become free
Comparisons and Analysis- • Changes: • Increased % of people living in settled, agricultural, cultures • Increased population in advanced, urban cultures • Migrations of Aryans, • Diffusion of universalizing & ethnic religions • Decline in status of women, increased patriarchy in agricultural based societies • Increased local and later regional trade routes • Gupta’s protection of Middle East/China Trade routes • Indian Ocean Trade • Rise and fall of empires
Comparison Essay Compare the social and family structures of India and China in the classical period. What are the main differences? The main similarities? • A comparison of classical China and India exposes the cultural variety of the era. • Political - Both societies had radically different organizing forces • In India, it was the caste system • India's more varied and diverse political experience. • In China it was Confucianism-influenced political structures • China's greater emphasis on political structures
Comparison Essay • Religion and Culture • Hinduism produced a sensual, otherworldly(ghostly, eerie), & monolithic (colossal) religious atmosphere in India • While the more secular Confucianism and Daoism competed for the attention in China • Economy- Though each had an agriculturally-based economy • Merchants were valued in India • Merchants were looked down on in China
Comparison Essay • Science and Mathematics • Indians were more theoretical • China emphasized practical findings • The greatest similarity between the two • Culture- The civilizations were similar in their extensive inequality and patriarchy; • Both cultures had the dominance of men. • Differences existed in the tone of patriarchal culture • In India showed more emphasis on beauty, cleverness, and sexuality in women, • While China displayed a more stereotypical(an oversimplified standardized image of a person or group)emphasis on female deference (polite respect, especially putting another person's interests first).