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Heart Structure and Function. Lab III. Closed Circulatory System. Pulmonary Circulation: Carries O 2 -depleted blood away from the heart, to the lungs, and returns to the heart with O 2 rich blood.

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closed circulatory system
Closed Circulatory System

Pulmonary Circulation: Carries O2-depleted blood away from the heart, to the lungs, and returns to the heart with O2 rich blood

Systemic Circulation: carries blood with O2 away from the heart to the rest of the body, and returns deoxygenated blood back to the heart

  • Arteries
    • Heart pumps blood into them
    • Elastic and are able to expand and contract
      • Maintains proper blood pressure which allows flow to continue
  • Veins
    • Less elastic
    • Rely on skeletal muscle contractions to push blood
      • Has valves to prevent back-flow

Human Heart:

  • Separated into two pumps and four chambers
    • Right pump: right atrium and ventricle
      • Leads to lungs
    • Left pump: left atrium and ventricle
      • Leads to the body
  • Tip forms the apex


  • Chambers connected by valves
    • Atrioventricular valve (AV): separates

atria from ventricles

      • Tricuspid (R)
      • Bicuspid (L)
    • Semilunar: between ventricles and arteries
      • Aorta: carries blood away from the heart from the left ventricle
      • Pulmonary artery: carries blood from the right ventricle

to the lungs

    • Open and close with pressure, prevent back-flow
  • Superior Vena Cava -> Right Atrium -> (Tricuspid) Valve -> Right Ventricle-> (Pulmonary Semilunar) Valve -> Pulmonary Artery -> Lungs -> Pulmonary Vein -> Left Atrium -> (Bicuspid) Valve -> Left Ventricle -> (Aortic Semilunar) Valve -> Aorta -> Body
today s lab
Today’s Lab:
  • Listen to heart sounds
  • Determine arterial and venous blood pressure
  • Analyze heart with EKG
  • Dissect sheep heart
heart sounds
Heart Sounds
  • Caused primarily by the shutting of valves which causes blood flow through the heart
    • Systole: Contraction of the heart
      • Atrial/Ventricular systole
    • Diastole: Period after systole when the heart fills with blood
      • Atrial/ventricular diastole
heart sounds1
Heart Sounds
  • Two sounds associated with cardiac function
    • “Lub”
      • Closing of AV valves
      • Ventricles contract = systole
      • Long duration and low pitched
    • “Dub”
      • Closing of semilunar aortic valve (blood slamming against this)
      • Ventricles relax = diastole
      • Short duration and high pitched
heart sounds2
Heart Sounds
  • Find your heart with a stethoscope
  • Listen for the “lub-dub”
    • Find where it is loudest – where is this on your chest?
blood pressure
Blood Pressure
  • Pressure exerted by circulating blood in arterial system against the walls of blood vessels
  • Ventricles contract and send a pressure wave through arteries

= pulse

  • Sphygmomanometer or “sphygmos”
    • Measures the pressure wave in arterial blood pressure
    • Systolic pressure
      • Point of maximum pressure, during ventricular contraction
      • Sharp tapping sound
    • Diastolic pressure
      • Point of lowest pressure, during ventricular relaxation
      • Tapping becomes muffled
blood pressure1
Blood Pressure
  • Arterial blood pressure
    • Systolic/Diastolic (mmHg)
    • Measured with a sphygmomanometer
  • Venous blood pressure
    • Much lower than arterial blood pressure
    • Measure mmH2O and convert to mmHg
  • Records electrical events in the


Electrical Activity of the Heart

  • Natural pacemaker in right atrium
    • Sinoatrial node (SA node)
    • Initiates the electrical sequence and causes the atria to contract
  • Electrical impulse from the SA node travels to the atrioventricular node (AV node)
    • Delays contraction of the ventricle so that the

atria can empty their blood completely before

the ventricles open

Electrical current in the heart animation

  • 5 components
    • P, Q, R, S, T
  • P: Atrial contraction
  • QRS: Ventricular contraction
    • Simultaneous atrial relaxation
  • T: Ventricular repolarization
    • Recovery of ventricular muscle tissue to its resting state
sheep heart dissection
Sheep Heart Dissection
  • View external anatomy
    • Try to identify any visible major blood vessels and arteries
      • Superior Vena Cava
      • Aorta
      • Pulmonary Artery
      • Pulmonary Veins
  • Internal anatomy
    • Identify chambers and valves
sheep heart dissection1

Be able to identify:

-R/L atrium - Superior Vena Cava

-R/L ventricle -Chordae tendinae

-Aorta -Pulmonary Artery

Explain the location of:

-Pulmonary Vein

-AV vales (Bicuspid/Tricuspid)

Sheep Heart Dissection