Ecology - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  1. Ecology

  2. 1. Biomes: major biological communities that occur over a large area of land/water. a. Two types: 1. Aquatic 2. Terrestrial b. Features which create different biomes: i. Climate effects where species live. ii. Temperature: organisms are adapted to live in a certain range of temperatures iii. Moisture: all organisms require water; organisms can live within a certain range of moisture.

  3. 2. Most common terrestrial biomes: 1. Tropical rain forest 2. Savanna 3. Taiga (coniferous forest) 4. Tundra 5. Desert 6. Temperategrassland 7. Temperate forest (deciduous and evergreen) 8. Chapparal

  4. I. Tundra - “The Cold Desert” a. Around the North Pole b. Less than 25 cm precipitation yearly c. Cold year round (-40ºC in winter) d. Cold, dry, treeless region. e. Permafrost:layer of permanently frozen soil underneath the topsoil. f. Plant examples: lichen, mosses, shrubs g. Animal examples: caribou, foxes, wolves, arctic hares (think fur)

  5. II. Taiga or Coniferous Forest a. Parts of Canada, Alaska, and Russia b. World’s largest land biome c. Between 50ºN and 60ºN d. Winters are long and cold e. About 40 cm of precipitation yearly (mostly snow) f. Plant examples: Cone-bearing Evergreen trees (pines, cedars, spruces) g. Animal examples: Moose, black bear, deer, wolves

  6. III. Temperate Deciduous Forest a. Found in Europe, the eastern part of the U.S.A., and China b. Below 50ºN latitude c. 75 to 150 cm precipitation yearly d. Wide range of temperatures with 4 seasons e. Below freezing in winter to 30ºC in summer f. Abundant Plant examples: Shrubs, wildflowers, ferns, oak trees, maple trees g. Animal examples: Birds, raccoons, amphibians, snakes, bears, deer, foxes

  7. IV. Tropical Rain Forest a. Found near the equator in Africa, South America, Australia, and the Pacific Islands b. 200 to 225 cm precipitation yearly c. Hot and humid all year d. Temperatures are fairly constant around 25ºC e. Abundant plants: Mahogany trees, bromeliads and orchids, giant ferns, many flowering plants f. Animal examples: Monkeys, exotic birds, snakes, sloths, bats, insects, large cats (tigers)

  8. V. Savanna a. Tropical, rolling grassland scattered with shrubs and isolated trees b. Long dry winter with 4” rainfall and rainy summerwith 15 – 50 inches of rainfall annually c. 90oF in dry season; 70oF in summer d. Plant examples: Tall, wild grasses, Acacia trees, small shrubs e. Animal examples: antelope, gazelles, giraffes, elephants, zebras, wildebeests, lions, hyenas, and leopards.

  9. VI. Grassland – Prairie a. Found on every continent b. Wet seasons followed by a season of drought c. 25 to 75 cm precipitation yearly d. Important farming areas for grains such as wheat, rye, barley, and corn. e. Animal examples: Bison, prairie dog, coyote

  10. VI. Chapparal Characteristics a. Cross between grassland and forest b. May contain mountain slopes and plains c. Hot, dry summers and mild winters d. Winter ~ 46oF ; summer ~ 72oF f. Annual rainfall 15 - 40 inches g. Plant examples: Oak trees, and shrubs h. Animal examples: Coyotes, lynx, chipmunks

  11. VII. Desert a. Found on every continent b. The driest biome on Earth c. Extreme temperatures: Very hot during the day and cool at night d. Very little rainfall e. Less than 25 cm precipitation yearly f. Plant examples: Cactus, Joshua trees, wildflowers g. Animal examples: Lizards, camels, snakes, scorpions, and Kangaroo rat

  12. I. Freshwater Biomes: divided into 2 groups: ponds and lakes and streams and rivers. II. Marine Biomes: divided into four sections: Estuaries, Intertidal Zone, Photic, and Aphotic Zones. i. Estuaries: Water from the rivers runs into the ocean; mixture of salt and fresh water, ii. Intertidal: Area from high-tide line to low-tide line.

  13. iii. Photic Zone: shallow enough for sunlight to penetrate. iv. Aphotic Zone: deeper water that never receives sunlight. III. Wetlands: swamps, marshes and bogs.