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How Technology Changed the Face of the War

How Technology Changed the Face of the War. Spodek, pp. 649-655, 661-663, 663-672. WHY GLOBAL WAR IN 1914?. Break of Multi-national Empires Intense Nationalism Social Darwinism Yellow Journalism Arms Race and Rise of Armaments Industry. New Weapons. New Weapons (continued).

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How Technology Changed the Face of the War

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  1. How Technology Changed the Face of the War Spodek, pp. 649-655, 661-663, 663-672

  2. WHY GLOBAL WAR IN 1914? • Break of Multi-national Empires • Intense Nationalism • Social Darwinism • Yellow Journalism • Arms Race and Rise of Armaments Industry

  3. New Weapons

  4. New Weapons (continued)

  5. New Weapons (continued)

  6. Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand • Serbian nationalism is a big problem then and now • Who Fought? • England, France, Belgium (neutral but attacked), Russia, Serbia, Italy, and Brazil • Austria-Hungary, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire

  7. Battlefronts

  8. Western front and Trenches

  9. Lusitania

  10. Lusitania and Zeppelins

  11. How World War I ends: • All European powers worn down—millions of casualties, millions of mutilated men • British blockage leads to famine conditions in Germany and Austria-Hungary

  12. US Enters the War: • Germans feel they have to renew unrestricted submarine warfare to end British blockade or morale will be totally ruined • Zimmerman Telegram • April 1917, Woodrow Wilson asked Congress to declare war. • Ludendoff Offensive in March 1918 • Germans defeated 11 of November 1918

  13. Casualties of World War I • Great Britain: 947, 000 dead; 2,122,000 wounded • France: 1,385,000 dead; 3,044,000 wounded • Russia: 1,700,000 dead; 4,950,000 wounded • Italy: 460,000 dead; 947,000 wounded • US: 115,000 dead; 206,000 wounded • Germany: 1,808,000 dead; 4,247,000 wounded • Austrio-Hungarian Empire: 1,200,000 dead; 3,620,000 wounded • Ottoman Empire: 325,000 dead; 400,000 wounded

  14. Versailles Treaty • Really five separate treaties but can think of them as Versailles Treaty • Two approaches: • Woodrow Wilson • Georges Clemenceau (French Premier)

  15. Woodrow Wilson’s Approach • Fourteen Points • Guide to future peace • Open covenants of peace; openly arrived at • National Self-Determination • League of Nations

  16. Georges Clemenceau’s Approach • Punish Germany • Blamed Germany for the war • Disarm Germany • Demilitarize the Rhineland • Create buffer states in Eastern Europe • Make Germany pay for the war (“war reparations”)

  17. Results of the Versailles Conference • Wilson got the League of Nations (but neither Germany nor USSR were in it)—US Senate vetoed entire Versailles Treaty. • Punish Germany: • Germany blamed for war • No Army • Alsace-Lorraine to France • Rhineland demilitarized • No Armaments Industry • Germany pays for War and Reparations (5 billion +)

  18. Eastern Europe

  19. Eastern Europe Austria-Hungary is dismantled Austria becomes small country Czechoslovakia Yugoslavia Poland Treaty of Trianon Hungary becomes a very small state, losing much territory and a majority of the Hungarians Romania (including large populations of Hungarians) National Self-Determination

  20. Middle East After Settlements • British Role: • Arab Revolts (Lawrence of Arabia) • Balfour Declaration • French Role: • Got Involved in Palestinian struggles to prevent British from getting all Middle East as new colonies

  21. Treaty of Sevres, August 10, 1920 • Mandates (another name for colonies to please President Wilson) • Jordon—mandate to British • Palestine—to British • Syria and Lebanon—French • Hijaz (Arab) independent

  22. Consequences of “Peace to End All War” • World War II • Arab-Israeli Conflict • Iraq-Iran War • Persian Gulf War • Bosnia, Kosovo, Serbian crisis • Al Queda – 9/11 • Iraq War - 2003

  23. Other Consequences • Ho Chi Minh – Vietnam War • May 4th Movement – Chinese Communism

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