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American History One Unit 4 Expansion. EQ; How did the forces of expansion impact the nation 1801-1850?. Expansion is……. Process of enlargement Process of increasing, or increasing something in size, extent, scope, or number

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American History One Unit 4 Expansion

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    expansion is
    Expansion is……
    • Process of enlargement
    • Process of increasing, or increasing something in size, extent, scope, or number
    • Growth by land acquisition: the increase of a country’s size by the acquisition of new territory
    • Video Clip
    1800 387 000 white settlers west

    1800 387,000 white settlers west of the Appalachian Mountains

    • 1820, 2.4 million
    • Settlers migrated West for:
      • Religious freedom
      • An opportunity to own land
      • Adventure
      • Women moved in hopes of better housing for families
    1845 john louis o sullivan magazine editor coined

    1845, John Louis O’Sullivan, magazine editor coined the term Manifest Destiny

    • God had given the continent to Americans and wanted them to settle western land
    • First to arrive in the West took the fertile land on rich river bottom and fertile woodlands
    • Squatters settled land they did not own
    • The government wanted to survey the land and then sell off large parcels to real estate companies
    • Squatters wanted to buy directly from the government
    the preemption act of 1830
    The Preemption Act of 1830
    • Under pressure Congress passed the Preemption Act in 1830
    • A renewable law made permanent in 1841
    • The law granted protection to squatters
    • Allowed them the right to claim land before it was surveyed and the right to buy up to 160 acres for $1.25 an acre
    early farmers used wooden plows to break

    Early farmers used wooden plows to break the sod and roots of the Mid-West

    • Jethro Wood patented an iron plow in 1819
    • John Deere developed a plow with sharp steel-edged blades in 1837
    • The new plows cut the labor in half required to prepare one acre for farming
    cyrus mccormick developed a mechanical reaper

    Cyrus McCormick developed a mechanical reaper in 1834

    • Grain now harvested with a machine instead of by hand with a sickle or scythe
    • The reaper was pulled by horses or mules
    • Allowed the harvest of more grain with less effort
    settlers who came later went to california

    Settlers who came later went to California or Oregon

    • Many believed the Great Plains contained poor soil unsuitable for farming
    • Called the “Great Desert”
    other nations native americans and the united

    Other nations, Native Americans, and the United States claimed parts of Oregon and California

    • In Oregon the United States and Great Britain competed for ownership
    • An agreement in 1818 resulted in both jointly occupying Oregon and to settle the dispute at a later date
    late 1830s american missionaries went to oregon

    Late 1830s American missionaries went to Oregon to convert Native Americans

    • The missionaries spread the word about Oregon, wrote letters sent back East about the beauty of the territory
    • The missionaries had a great influence on the migration of easterners to the Willamette Valley
    efforts by mexico to populate california
    Efforts by Mexico to populate California
    • 1821, Mexico gains independence from Spain
    • Mexico controlled a large geographic area, including California
    • California far from the center of government in Mexico City
    • Local California government encouraged foreign settlement, could not attract emigrants from Mexico
    1839 to attract more settlers governor alvarado

    1839, to attract more settlers Governor Alvarado granted 50,000 acres to a German immigrant, John Sutter

    • Sutter built a trading post and cattle ranch
    • Sutter’s Fort the first stopping point for Americans when they reached California
    • 1845, 200 plus Americans settled in California
    the trails west started in the east and were very

    The trails west started in the East and were very dangerous

    • The first trailblazers were “mountain men”, Kit Carson and Jim Bridger who trapped beaver in the Rocky Mountains, had knowledge of the territory and the Native Americans
    • 1840s, the mountain men found or created several passages through the mountains that would play and important role in the settlement of the west
    the most popular routes the oregon trail

    The most popular routes

      • The Oregon Trail
      • The California Trail
      • The Santa Fe Trail
      • The Mormon Trail
    the journey west made in covered wagons prior

    The journey West made in covered wagons

    • Prior to the start of the journey, the wagon trains assembled at staging areas outside of frontier towns
    • Families traded information about the routes, bought supplies, trained oxen, and learned how to handle the wagons that were prone to roll over
    first wagon trains hired mountain men as guides

    First wagon trains hired mountain men as guides

    • After the trails were well worn, overlanders used guide books written by earlier migrants
    • On occasion the information in the books were incorrect
    • 1846 Donner Party was trapped in the Sierra Nevada Mountains due to snow
    41 died of starvation some that survived resorted

    41 died of starvation

    • Some that survived resorted to cannibalism
    • The trip West took 5-6 months
    • Covered about 15 miles a day
    • Men drove the wagons, hunted game, cared for the animals at night
    • Women tended the children, cooked, cleaned and washed clothes
    early settlers feared indian attack encounters

    Early settlers feared Indian attack

    • Encounters with Native Americans rare
    • Between 1840-1860, 362 emigrants died at the hands of Native Americans and emigrants killed 426 Native Americans
    • Native Americans often provided emigrants with food, information about routes, edible plants , and water sources
    more settlers cross the great plains native

    More settlers cross the Great Plains, Native Americans saw immigration as a threat to their way of life

    • The Sioux, Cheyenne, Arapaho, and other tribes depended on the buffalo for food, clothing, shelter, and tools
    • Native Americans afraid the flow of settlers across hunting grounds would disrupt the migration patterns of the buffalo herds
    in order to bring peace in the west

    In order to bring peace in the West the government negotiated the Treaty of Ft. Laramie

    • Eight Native American tribes agreed to specific geographic boundaries
    • The government of the United States promised that these territories would belong to the Native Americans permanently
    the mormons headed west to escape religious

    The Mormons headed West to escape religious persecution

    • In effect they left the United States
    • 1844, after the murder of Joseph Smith, Brigham Young led his people West
    • Several thousand Mormons forged a path, became known as the Mormon Trail, a valuable trail West
    1847 the mormons stopped at the great salt lake

    1847, the Mormons stopped at the Great Salt Lake in present day Utah

    • Young declared this was where the Mormons would build a new settlement
    • In the wilderness the Mormons staked a claim on the land they called Desert
    opening texas to americans
    Opening Texas to Americans
    • July 1821, Stephen Austin leaves Louisiana for Texas
    • The Spanish government promised a large tract of land to Moses Austin if he brought 300 American families
    • Moses Austin died before he reached Texas
    • Texas, part of the Spanish Empire
    • Mexican Independence in 1821, Texas under Mexican control
    tejanos spanish speaking inhabitants lived

    Tejanos, Spanish speaking inhabitants lived in settlements of San Antonio de Bexar and Hidalgo in Southern Texas

    • Few lived north of the settlements
    • Northern region inhabited by the Apache, Comanche and other Native American tribes
    • In order to settle the area, Mexico invited Americans and other foreigners to settle areas near the Native Americans
    national colonization act
    National Colonization Act
    • 1823-1825, Mexico passed three colonization laws
    • Offered cheap land
    • A 10 year exemption from paying taxes
    • Had to become Mexican citizens
    • Live under Mexican law
    • Convert to Catholicism
    • Some Americans went to Texas on their own
    most came due to efforts by empresarios agents

    Most came due to efforts by empresarios (agents or contractors)

    • The National Colonization Act granted 26 empresarios large land grants in Texas
    • Had to fill land with specific number of settlers
    • Plots of land were assigned to each family
    • Empresarios governed the colonies they established
    stephen austin founded washington on the brazos

    Stephen Austin founded Washington on the Brazos in mid 1830s

    • Austin convinced 1,500 American families to immigrate to Texas
    americanizing texas
    Americanizing Texas
    • American immigrants accepted Mexican citizenship
    • Did not accept Mexican customs nor see Mexico as their own country
    • Spanish Catholic Church was strange to them
    • Most did not attempt to learn Spanish
    • Mexicans did not trust American immigrants because of their lifestyle and dismissal of Mexican ways
    the mexican response to benjamin edwards revolt
    The Mexican response to Benjamin Edwards’ revolt
    • 1826, empresario Haden Edwards’ brother Benjamin Edwards led a rebellion against the Mexican authority
    • Disagreement over who controlled the area, the empresiaro or the Mexican government
    • Edwards declared the American settlements in Texas made up the independent nation of Fredonia
    the revolt had little support stephen austin

    The revolt had little support

    • Stephen Austin led troops that allowed Mexico to put down the revolt
    • Few settlers answered the call for revolt
    • Mexican government was afraid the revolt signaled an American plot to take Texas
    • 1830, Mexico banned immigration of Americans
    banned the importation of slave labor mexico

    Banned the importation of slave labor

    • Mexico taxed imported goods, to discourage trade with the United States
    • New laws angered settlers
    • No immigration, settlements could not grow
    • Import tax, goods cost more that were purchased from the United States
    • The Mexican government was telling the settlers what they could or could not do
    the settlers saw no need to follow directives

    The settlers saw no need to follow directives from a government they did not accept as their own

    texan demands
    Texan Demands
    • Settlers met at two conventions in the town of San Felipe in 1832 and 1833
    • S. Austin chosen as president of the first convention, asked Mexico to reopen Texas to American immigration and loosen import taxes
    • At the second convention, asked that Texas become a new Mexican state
    created a constitution for the new state sent

    Created a constitution for the new state

    • Sent Austin to Mexico City to talk with the Mexican government
    • Fall of 1833 the talks stop
    • Austin sent a letter to the Tejano leaders in San Antonio, suggesting the peaceful formation of their own state
    • The Mexican authorities intercepted the letter
    austin did talk with president santa anna

    Austin did talk with President Santa Anna, who agreed to lift ban on immigration

    • Jan. 3, 1833, Austin arrested on his return trip home for treason
    • Held in Mexico City without trial until released in 1835
    santa anna
    Santa Anna
    • April 1834, Santa Anna denounced the Mexican Constitution
    • Set himself up as dictator
    • Sept. 1835 Austin realized war was the only option
    • Urged Texans to organize an army
    problems for the mexican army
    Problems for the Mexican Army
    • The Texan army faced a Mexican army with many problems
    • Political instability in Mexico City led to:
      • Poor military leadership
      • Poor training
      • Poor support
    first texan victory was at gonzales 75 miles east

    First Texan victory was at Gonzales

    • 75 miles east of San Antonio
    • Mexican soldiers ordered Texans to surrender their arms
    • Texans pointed a cannon at the Mexicans and told them to come and take them
    • No orders to attack, Mexicans retreat to San Antonio
    350 texans followed drove a larger mexican force

    350 Texans followed

    • Drove a larger Mexican force out of San Antonio in December 1835
    texans had their own problems few with military

    Texans had their own problems

    • Few with military training
    • No agreement on leadership
    • Sam Houston took command
    • Santa Anna had a force of 6,000 troops to put down the rebellion
    santa anna s forces found 180 rebels

    Santa Anna’s forces found 180 rebels in an abandoned Spanish mission in San Antonio (the Alamo)

    • Feb. 1836
    • Texans commanded by William B. Travis
    • The Texans were to slow Santa Anna so that Houston could prepare his forces
    • Travis sent a call for reinforcements, on 32 settlers from Gonzales made it to the Alamo
    low on ammunition and gun powder the texans held

    Low on ammunition and gun powder

    • The Texans held off Santa Anna’s army for 13 days
    • During the fighting at the Alamo the Texas government met at Washington on the Brazos and made a formal declaration of war with Mexico
    • March 6, 1836, the Mexican troops took the Alamo
    the texans fought for six hours killing

    The Texans fought for six hours killing or wounding 600 before being overrun

    • The defenders of the Alamo were defeated
    • Did allow Houston two extra weeks to organize his forces
    two weeks after the alamo the mexican army

    Two weeks after the Alamo the Mexican army defeated Texan troops led by James W. Fannin at Goliad

    • Fannin and his men surrendered
    • Santa Anna ordered them executed
    • Dawn March 27, 1836 300 Texans executed by firing squad
    • Losses at the Alamo and Goliad hurt the Texans but united them behind their new country
    the battle of san jacinto was the turning point

    The Battle of San Jacinto was the turning point of the war

    • Texan army in bad shape, needed new recruits and training
    • Houston retreated , headed to Louisiana
    • Waited for Santa Anna to make a mistake
    • April 21, 1836, both armies camped along the San Jacinto River
    santa anna held little fear of the texans

    Santa Anna held little fear of the Texans, let his troops sleep in the afternoon

    • Houston’s men convinced him to attack
    • Used a hill to hide their movements, the Texans crept up on the sleeping Mexican army
    • Surprise attack threw the Mexican army into a panic
    • The battle lasted 20 minutes, the killing lasted for hours
    calls of remember the alamo and remember goliad

    Calls of Remember the Alamo and Remember Goliad, the Texans attacked with guns, knives, and clubs

    • Killed hundreds and took 700 prisoner
    • Texans had 9 killed and 34 wounded
    • Captured Santa Anna
    • Houston forced Santa Anna to order his army back to Mexico and recognize the independence of the Republic of Texas
    the mexican congress would not accept the treaty

    The Mexican Congress would not accept the treaty

    • No more military actions in Texas
    september 1836 texas held it s first election

    September, 1836 Texas held it’s first election

    • Sam Houston the first president
    • Also voted for annexation by the United States
    us response to the request to annex texas
    US response to the request to annex Texas
    • Northern members of Congress opposed to admitting Texas as a slave state
    • President Jackson did not want to inflame tensions between the North and the South
    • Did not want war with Mexico, which still claimed Texas
    • Jackson made no move to annex
    • Jackson on his last day in office did sign a resolution officially recognizing Texas as an independent nation
    war with mexico was inevitable as far back

    War with Mexico was inevitable, as far back as 1803 there had been territorial disputes with Mexico/Spain

    • The US claimed part of Texas in the Louisiana Purchase
    • US gave up that claim in the Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819
    • Manifest Destiny and acquiring Mexican Territory had strong support
    president tyler and annexation
    President Tyler and annexation
    • Tension between the US and Mexico increased under the administration of Tyler
    • Tyler wanted to bring Texas into the Union
    • Texas, large population of southern white slaveholders
    • Texas would become a slave state
    • Antislavery leaders in Congress opposed annexation
    mexico never recognized the independence of texas

    Mexico never recognized the independence of Texas, considered it Mexican Territory

    • 1844, Tyler brought annexation to the Senate
    • Sec. of State John C. Calhoun had written a letter defending slavery that was among the annexation documents
    • Northerners in the Senate used the letter to support the claim that annexation was a proslavery plot, vote of 35-16 the Senate rejected annexation
    early leaders in the race for the presidency whig

    Early leaders in the race for the presidency Whig Henry Clay, Democrat Martin Van Buren

    • Both asked position on annexation, both declined to take a position in fear of losing support
    • Van Buren lost the nomination for the Democrats to James K. Polk
    • Polk promised to annex Texas and the Oregon Territory
    also to buy california from mexico this promise

    Also to buy California from Mexico

    • This promise appealed to northerners and southerners
    • Expand the nation and keep the balanced between free and slave states
    • Polk’s stand made Clay reverse his statement against annexation, now supported annexation if done without war with Mexico
    clay angered anti slave whigs who supported

    Clay angered anti-slave Whigs who supported the Liberty Party, abolitionist third party

    • Spilt the Whig vote, Polk won
    54 40 or fight
    54-40 or Fight
    • Polk took a strong stand on Oregon
    • British had claims in Oregon
    • According to Polk “the US has a clear and unquestionable right to it”
    • Polk supporters, 54-40 or fight, wanted all of Oregon to the line 54 degrees 40 minutes north latitude
    • June 1846, Great Britain and US agree to a division, US got all land south of 49 degrees north latitude except for the southern tip of Vancouver Island
    annexation of texas
    Annexation of Texas
    • Tyler pushed an annexation resolution through Congress before Polk took office
    • Feb., 1845- Texas a state
    • The resolution needed only a simple majority of both houses of Congress instead of a 2/3rds majority in the Senate to ratify a treaty
    • Mexico broke off diplomatic relations with the US
    more problems over the border between mexico

    More problems over the border between Mexico and Texas

    • Mexico claimed the border was the Nueces River
    • Texans and the US claimed the border was the Rio Grande River- 150 miles further west and south
    • More territory than the Mexican claim
    john slidell
    John Slidell
    • Polk’s interest in California made the situation worse
    • Polk sent John Slidell to Mexico City to purchase the California Territory
    • Mexican President Jose’ Herrera would not meet with Slidell
    polk starts the war
    Polk starts the war
    • By not meeting with Slidell it appeared there was no way to resolve the disagreement peacefully
    • Polk ordered Zachery Taylor to take troops across the Nueces River
    • Mexico saw action as an invasion
    • Polk wanted Mexico to fire the first shots
    • He then could claim Mexico the aggressor and get popular support for the war
    may 9 1846 polk learned a mexican force

    May 9, 1846 Polk learned a Mexican force had attacked Taylor’s men

    • Polk addressed Congress, declared the US was at war with Mexico, by an act of Mexico itself
    • To get public support, claimed American blood shed on American soil
    • Whigs opposed the war, saw it as way to extend slavery
    most politicians did not like polk s actions

    Most politicians did not like Polk’s actions, but saw the US was committed to war

    • May 13, 1846, Senate vote 40-2, House vote 174-14 in favor of war
    1 taylor would continue to move to the south

    1. Taylor would continue to move to the south, crossing the Rio Grande near the Gulf of Mexico

    • 2. a force would be sent to the northwest to capture Santa Fe, trading center, then march to take California, aided by US navy
    • 3. forces would advance to Mexico City and force a surrender
    for the plan to work needed larger army congress

    For the plan to work needed larger army

    • Congress gave Polk the authority to call for 50,000 volunteers, about 73,000 volunteered
    • Undisciplined, unruly, not the best soldiers
    taylor and the war
    Taylor and the War
    • Early May 1846, before Polk signed declaration of war, Taylor defeated Mexican forces at:
      • Palo Alto
      • Resaca de la Palma
      • Moved south, defeated the Mexicans at Matamoros
      • Late September, 1846, Taylor had advanced 200 miles from the Gulf of Mexico and captured Monterrey
    kearny and the war
    Kearny and the War
    • Colonel Steven W. Kearny and his troops left Ft. Leavenworth, west of Missouri headed for Santa Fe
    • Long hard march
    • Arrived in Santa Fe to find Mexican forces had left the city
    • Santa Fe secure, small force pushed on to California
    before kearny and his forces reached california

    Before Kearny and his forces reached California and war officially declared settlers in Northern California led by John C. Fremont revolted

    • Mexican presence in the territory never very great, settlers little difficulty overcoming it
    • June, 14, 1846 they declared California independent
    named it the bear flag republic shortly the bear

    Named it the Bear Flag Republic

    • Shortly the Bear Flag Republic ended when US naval forces occupied San Francisco and San Diego
    • Took possession of California for the US
    winfield scott and the war
    Winfield Scott and the War
    • War was going as Polk planned
    • To end war needed to take Mexico City
    • Sent soldiers by ship to Vera Cruz, march west take the city
    • Replaced Taylor with General Winfield Scott
    • Afraid Taylor would challenge Polk in 1848 election
    • By September 14, 1846 Scott captured Mexico City
    the treaty of guadalupe hidalgo
    The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    • After the fall of Mexico City the Mexican leaders no choice but to sign the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, February 2, 1848
    • Mexico ceded the US 500,000 square miles of territory:
      • California
      • Utah
      • Nevada
      • Parts of Colorado and Wyoming
      • The Rio Grande was established as the southern border of Texas
    us paid mexico 15 million and took over

    US paid Mexico $15 million and took over $3.25 million in debts from the Mexican government owed US citizens

    • Oregon and former Mexican territories under US control
    • Manifest Destiny complete
    • US stretched from ocean to ocean
    • New ports on the west coast opened the US to Pacific and Asian nations
    which new lands allow slavery and which would

    Which new lands allow slavery and which would not would lead the US into another conflict

    • Soldiers like Robert E. Lee and Ulysses S. Grant would gain experience in the War with Mexico and use it against other Americans
    wilmot proviso
    Wilmot Proviso
    • An amendment to a military spending bill by Representative David Wilmot
    • The amendment stated that there would be no slavery in any area acquired from the Mexican Cession
    • The Proviso failed to pass but did illustrate the division within Congress and the nation in regards to the expansion of slavery