Chapter 9 Leadership. Managers versus leaders Trait theories of leadership Behavioral theories of leadership Contingency theories of leadership Contemporary leadership issues. Leaders are people who are able to influence others and who possess managerial authority.
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Chapter 9 Leadership • Managers versus leaders • Trait theories of leadership • Behavioral theories of leadership • Contingency theories of leadership • Contemporary leadership issues
Leaders are people who are able to influence others and who possess managerial authority.
Trait Theories of Leadership • Trait theories of leadership search for traits or characteristics that differentiate leaders from nonleaders.
Six Traits That Differentiate Leaders From nonleaders • Drive • Desire to lead • Honesty and integrity • Self-confidence • Intelligence • Job-relevant knowledge
Behavioral Theories of Leadership • The styles of leadership • Two independent dimensions of leader behaviors • Managerial grid
The Styles of Leadership • Autocratic style of leadership • Democratic style of leadership • Laissez-faire style of leadership
Autocratic style of leadership : The term used to describe a leader who centralizes authority, dictates work method, makes unilateral decisions, and limits employee participation.
Democratic style of leadership: The term used to describe a leader who involves employees in decision making delegates authority, encourages participation in deciding work methods and goals, and uses feedback to coach employees. This style can be further classified in two ways: consultative and participative
Laissez-faire style of leadership: The term used to describe a leader who gives employees complete freedom to make decisions and to decide on work method.
Two Dimensions of Leader Behaviors • Ohio state university’s research: Initiating structure: the extent to which a leader defines and structures his or her role and the roles of employees to attain goals. Consideration: the extent to which a leader has job relationships characterized by mutual trust, respect for employees’ ideas, and regard for their feelings.
University of Michigan’s research: Employee oriented: leaders emphasize interpersonal relations, take a personal interest in the needs of employees, and accept individual difference. Production oriented: leaders emphasize the technical or task aspects of a job, are concerned mainly with accomplishing tasks, and regards group members as a means to accomplishing goals.
9 Concern for people 8 1,9 country club management 1,1 impoverished management 9,1 task management 9,9 team management 5,5 middle of the road management 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Concern for production Exhibit 9-1 the Managerial Grid
Contingency Theories of Leadership • Fiedler model • Path-goal theory • Situational leadership
LPC(least-preferred coworker questionnaire) This is a questionnaire that measures whether a person is task or relationship oriented. • Three situational factors • Matching the leader’s style with the situations
Leader-member relations: The degree of confidence, trust, and respect subordinates have in their leader. • Task structure: The degree to which the job assignments of subordinates are structured or unstructured. • Position power: The degree of influence a leader has over power variables such as hiring, firing, discipline, promotions, and salary increase.
Relationship-oriented Performance Task-oriented Good Poor Favorable Moderate Unfavorable Exhibit 9-2 the Findings of Fiedler Model Category Leader-member relations Task structure Position power
Environmental contingency factors • Task structure • Formal authority system • Work group • Leader behavior • Directive • Supportive • Participative • Achievement oriented • Outcomes • Performance • Satisfaction • Employee contingency factors • Locus of control • Experience • Perceived ability Exhibit 9-3 Path-goal Theory
High Relationship behavior S3 S2 Participating Selling Delegating Telling S4 S1 Low High Task behavior R4 R3 R2 R1 Able and unwilling Unable and unwilling Unable and willing Able and willing High Low Moderate Follower readiness Exhibit 9-4 Situational Leadership Model S1: high task and low relationship S2: high task and high relationship S3: high relationship and low task S4: low relationship and low task Readiness refers to the extend which people have the ability and the willingness to accomplish a specific task
Liaisons with External constituents Coaches Effective Team leadership Roles Conflict managers Troubleshooters Exhibit 9-5 Team Leadership