Clock hour Information • If you “saved” your clock hour forms from the 1st intervention training (at a school building), you can add tonight’s training. • Make sure to include that training date as well as tonight’s. • The total clock hours will be 6 • The fee will be $6 • If you did not save your form, you can still get clock hours tonight. • Total clock hours for tonight is 3 • Total fee for tonight is $5 • If you are Title 1, LAP, or a coach, please indicate next to your name on the sign in.
Learning targets • I can explain why comprehension instruction is important. • I can name specific comprehension strategies. • I can create QAR questions. • I can explain why vocabulary instruction is important. • I can choose specific vocabulary strategies. • I can plan a week’s worth of vocabulary lessons using the strategies from tonight’s work.
Norms • Be present in your learning. • For those of us on different ends of the learning continuum, please value those of us still learning. • Honor the presenter by listening. • Take care of your needs whenever you need them.
Discuss with your table group • What is reading comprehension? • Why is comprehension important? • What instructions help students develop comprehension? • How can we adopt instruction for students with special needs? • How can we monitor students’ progress in comprehension?
What is Reading Comprehension • Comprehension is critically important to the development of children’s reading skills…it’s the essence of reading. It is a complex cognitive process that requires an intentional and thoughtful interaction between the reader and text. • Development and application of comprehension strategies is intimately linked to student success. Lastly, comprehension is not a product of reading, but as a result of the active engagement between the reader and the text, and not the activity or the context.
What comprehension strategies did the nrp identify as most promising and effective? • The NRP (2000) identified the following comprehension strategies as most promising and effective for helping students improve their comprehension: • Comprehension Monitoring • Cooperative Learning • Graphic and Semantic Organizers • Story (or Text) Structure and Mapping • Questioning (Answering & Generating) • Summarization • Multiple Strategy Approach
Key comprehension strategiespressley 2000; rand study group, 2002 • Identifying important information • Inferring/predicting • Monitoring/clarifying • Generating and answering questions • Visualizing • Summarizing • Synthesizing • Evaluating
The 9 Making Meaning strategies • Retelling • Using schema/making connections • Visualizing • Wondering/Questioning • Making Inferences • Determining important ideas • Understanding text structure • Summarizing • Synthesizing K/1 4/5 Cognitive Demand Less Demand More Demand
Strategies for Students • Think Pair Share • Visualizing during read aloud • How did you picture the part where it said, “The students were squished on the bus.”? Who did you picture on slide? How is that person coming down the slide? • Students connect discussion comments to those made by another reader: • I agree with _______ because _________________. • I disagree with ________ because _______________. • In addition to what ________ said, I’d like to add __________________. • When talking with a partner, help them share more: • Tell me more of your thinking about ________. • Let’s talk a little more about ______________. • Another way to think about it might be ____________.
Strategies for teachers • Use sticky notes to mark the places vocabulary words appear. You might write the meaning of the word on the note to help you define it smoothly without interrupting the reading. • Use sticky notes to mark stopping places in the book, remind you of questions, or other important information you want to convey. • For each skill, teach explicitly, model, and practice. • Discuss the story and make personal connections by asking students: • What did you hear the second time reading the story that you missed the first time? • What does this story tell us about ________ (theme)? What in the story makes you think that?
Strategies for Teachers • Use Class Meeting format to discuss stories • Class meeting rules • One person talks at a time • Listen to one another • Allow people to disagree • Talk respectfully to one another
Deeper Thinking Discussion “Students are encourage to think critically and deeply about the meaning of what they read, and to use evidence from the story to support their ideas”.
Student responsibilities during a discussion • Read and understand the story • Come prepared to discuss your answer to the questions • Be an attentive listener • Ask questions of others • Be open to new ideas • Use the text to support your thinking
Teacher responsibilities during a Reading discussion • Choose the Question • Plan ahead passages that relate to the question • Only ask questions during the discussion • Use a seating chart to keep track of student ideas • Move the discussion along by asking clarifying questions
Sample Seating Chart Diojane Miguel Diandre Believes the character was wrong x x x Maria x Alex Gary Agrees with Diojane Felicia x Jessica Wonders why the main character left at the end. Felix Agrees with America Gustov America Alejandro Leslie
Ways to use Deeper Questioning Strategies • After reading the story, determine which higher order question you want to ask. • Pose question to students • Check for understanding • Students write in response to question. • Students discuss answers.
Cooperative Learning with Reciprocal Teaching • Groups predict what they story will be about using picture clues or story title. • Groups generate questions • Who will the story focus on? • Where will it take place? • What problems might occur? • Groups summarize the main parts of the story • Groups determine if there predictions were correct and clarify answers to the questions they generated.
Graphic Organizers: Think Links • The students read a selection • The teacher asks the student to identify the main topic of the text and list words that describe the topic. • The teacher asks students to give some examples or more information from the text for each one of the descriptive words that they listed. • The students organize and link the information using a web.
QAR: Question Answer Relationships • Asking Questions: • Gives a purpose for reading • Focuses attention on what must be learned • Helps develop active thinking while reading • Helps monitor comprehension • Helps review content • Relates what is learned to what is already known (connections!) • Requires students to make inferences • (Armbruster, Lear, & Osborn, 2001)
QAR: Questions • Right There: You can put your finger on it. (What was the score at the end of the game?) • Think and Search: You can put your finger on 2 or more answers from 2 or more paragraphs. (What are some of the things T.J. did?) • Author and you: Information from the story and you. You must think about what you already know, what the author is telling you, and how both fit together. (What are some other ways Jake could have solved the problem?). • On your own: Information just from you. (Have you ever been the new student and what did it feel like?)
10 Important Sentences • Sentences are the basic means of written communication. • Readers use sentences to build meaning in context from text. • 10 important sentences manual • Provided for each selection in the student edition. • Each sentence is logical and cohesive. • Each sentence provides a key idea from the selection. • Ten Important Sentences – 6 Three Minute Activities
Graphic Organizers • Graphic Organizer Manual included in teacher resource guide. • 1 of the 7 most effect comprehension strategies • Contents includes “GO” organizers listed numerically along with teaching pages which come after the graphic organizers • Other graphic organizers not included on the SWIFT page from grades 4-6 Graphic Organizer Book • Main Idea • Venn Diagram • Cause and Effect • Time Line & Steps in a Process • 3, 4, and 5-Column charts & Outline Forms A & B
More Graphic Organizers from • SWIFT site • T-chart • Story Prediction • Story Prediction from Vocabulary • K-W-L • Question the Author • Story Sequence (A,B, & C) • Vocabulary Frame • Web (A & B) • Word Rating • Story Comparison • Story Elements
Written Comprehension Research For active involvement of students in reading expository text, have students: • Note important ideas, phrases or words in the margins or write notes • While taking notes, attend to the author’s message and evaluate what information is important CONTINUED Fountas & Pinnell. Guiding Readers and Writers, 2000 Carnine, Silbert, Kame’enui, and Tarver. Direct Instruction Reading, 2004 Harvey, Stephanie & Goudvis, Anne. Strategies that Work, 2000
Written Comprehension Research continued • From note taking, do a short summary of the content • For future study • Writing a paragraph summary of the content • Answering written questions • Writing a report • Re-read or skim the passage (Reason we encourage the “Look Back Citation”) • Write the response giving ideas and details • Examine and evaluate written work samples to determine if students are constructing meaning
Structured engagement scaffolds: Critical “tools” for differentiating instruction • Choral responses • Partner responses • Written responses A. Focused prompts increase thinking, accountability, focus B. Structured academic language • Individual responses “We can’t narrow the gap unless we dramatically increase student response to instruction.” Dr. Kevin Feldman – Director of Reading and Early Intervention with Sonoma County Office of Education, CA – February, 2009
IVF • From Step Up to Writing – • Summary Paragraphs – “A summary is a shortened, condensed version of an item such as an article, story, film, or chapter in a textbook. The purpose of a summary is to share the key ideas from the item with your reader. Summaries keep the same tone as the original piece and usually do not contain opinion. Summaries do not have a formal conclusion.” sec. 3-3 • IVF summary includes the following: • Create a topic sentence using the “burrito” topic sentence method. • Copy the topic sentence into a “real” sentence. • Add a Fact Outline • Write the summary using your Fact Outline
Vocabulary foundation notes Enhancing Literacy Instruction and More
“Ours is the only language in which you drive in a parkway and park in a driveway and your nose can run and your feet can smell” -Richard Lederer
Cumulative Experiences (Hart & Risley, 1995)
Vocabulary Gap • -Children who enter school with limited vocabulary knowledge grow more discrepant over time from their peers who have a rich vocabulary knowledge (Baker, Simmons, & Kame’enui, 1997). • -The number of words students learn varies greatly • 2 vs. 8 words per day • 750 vs. 3000 words per year • -High SES first graders know twice as many words as lower SES (Graves & Slater, 1987). • -ELL students learn conversation English in less than 2 years, but may require 3-5 years to catch up with monolingual peers in academic vocabulary (CALPS).
Language Experiences by Group Professional 45 Million Words Working-class 26 Million Words Estimated Cumulative Words Addressed to Child (In Millions) Welfare 13 Million Words 12 24 36 48 (Age Child in Months) Meaningful Differences in the Everyday Experience of Young American Children by Betty Hart & Todd R. Risley. Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. (1995).
Matthew Effects (the gap) • Because poor readers tend to read considerably less than better readers, the gap between the good and poor readers in number of words read, and both receptive and expressive vocabulary, becomes progressively greater as the child advances through school. • “The rich get richer and the poor get poorer.” • Cunningham, A. & Stanovich, K. (Summer 1998) What reading does for the mind. American Educator.
The Effects of Weaknesses in Oral Language on Reading Growth(Hirsch, 1996) 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 High Oral Language in Kindergarten 5.2 years difference Reading Age Level Low Oral Language in Kindergarten 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Chronological Age
Only 4% of English Learners’ school day is spent engaging in student talk. • Only 2% of English Learners’ day is spent discussing focal lesson content (but not necessarily using relevant academic language). • Arreaga-Mayer & Perdomo-Rivera, 1996
What are the Benefits of Vocabulary Instruction? • Leads to gains in comprehension • Increases effective communication • Has long term impact on powers of communication and concept development