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EPNT 2006. Summary of MACRO results on exotic physics. Workshop on Exotic Physics with Neutrino Telescopes Uppsala, Sweden, September 20-22, 2006. M. Giorgini (Bologna University and INFN).

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Summary of macro results on exotic physics

EPNT 2006

Summary of MACRO results on exotic physics

Workshop on Exotic Physics with Neutrino Telescopes

Uppsala, Sweden, September 20-22, 2006

M. Giorgini (Bologna University and INFN)

MACRO Coll. : Bari, Bologna, Boston, Caltech, Drexel, Frascati, Gran Sasso, Indiana, L’Aquila, Lecce, Michigan, Napoli, Pisa, Roma, Texas, Torino, Oujda.


The macro experiment

1984 : Proposal

1987 : Construction starts

The MACRO experiment

1989 : First Supermodule ON

4/1994 : Full detector ON

12/2000 : Rest In Peace


N m induced muon events in macro
nm-induced muon events in MACRO

  • Average rock overburden : 3700 hg/cm2

  • Reduction factor of downgoing m : ~ 106

  • Total acceptance : ~ 10000 m2 sr for an isotropic flux

  • Limited streamer tubes

  • (ang. res. < 1°)

  • Liquid scintillation counters

  • (time res. ~ 500 ps)

  • Nuclear track detectors


Zenith distributions

MCno osc

MCno osc

MCosc

MCosc

q

IU m

Zenith distributions

Upthroughgoing m

ID + UGS m


L e n distribution

MC predictions for nm nt

oscillations with the best

MACRO parameters

L/En distribution

From the shape of the muon zenith distribution

From the measurement

of the muon energy using

their Multiple Coulomb

Scattering

[Phys. Lett. B566 (2003) 35]

Upthr. m data( ~300 events)

IU m data

12% point-to-point syst. error


N m n t or n m n sterile

Matter effects :

OSCILLATION HYPOTHESIS

Minimum value for nm nt : Rtmin =1.61

Minimum value for nmnsterile : Rstmin =2.03

PROBABILITY FOR R < Rmin :

Pt= 7.2% ; Psterile = 0.015% Pt/Psterile = 480

nmnsterile hypothesis

disfavoured at 99.8 % C.L.

with respect to nm nt

nm nt or nmnsterile ?

Phys. Lett. B517 (2001) 59

R = (-1< cosQ <-0.7) / (-0.4 <cosQ <0)


Final results eur phys j c36 2004 323

Best parameters for nm nt

Dm2 = 2.3 10-3 eV2 ; sin2 2q =1

Final results(Eur. Phys. J. C36 (2004) 323)

{

R1= N(cos Q < -0.7) / N(cosQ > -0.4)

  • Zenith distribution

H.E.

  • En estimate by MCS

R2= N(low En) / N(high En)

R3= N(ID+UGS) / N(IU)

  • IU, ID and UGS m

L.E.

NO OSCILLATION HYPOTHESIS

RULED OUT BY ~ 5s

90% C.L.

Only 3 ratios

Adding the absolute flux information

(Bartol96 correct within 17%)

3 ratios + 2 normalizations

NO OSCILLATION HYPOTHESIS

RULED OUT BY ~ 6s


Violation of lorentz invariance vli
Violation of Lorentz Invariance (VLI)

If VLI is introduced, particles could have different

Maximum Attainable Velocities (MAVs) vi (p=∞) ≠ c

Velocity and flavor eigenstates are now connected by a new

mixing angle qv

If neutrinos have different MAVs (i.e. Δv = v3-v2 ≠ 0), the

survival oscillation probability has the form:

P(nm→ nm ) = 1- sin2 2qv sin2 [ 2.54.1018Dv L. En ]

Mixed oscillation scenario

When both mass-induced and VLI-induced oscillations are

simultaneously considered:

P(nm→ nm ) = 1- sin2 2Q sin2 W

Oscillation “length”

Oscillation “strength”


Survival probability vs e n l 10000 km d m 2 2 3 10 3 ev 2 q m p 4
Survival probability vs En(L=10000 km , Dm2=2.3.10-3 eV2 , qm= p/4

+0.3

-0.3

Main effect are mass-induced oscillations

VLI is considered as a subdominant effect,

at least for the accessible energies

+0.7

-0.7

+1

-1


2 analysis
χ2 analysis

Cuts optimized

with MC

>

high


Results phys lett b615 2005 14

Neutrino flux used in MC: Honda et al., Phys Rev. D70 (2004) 043008

Results (Phys. Lett. B615 (2005) 14)

Changing Dm2 with Dm2± 30% the limit moves up/down by at

most a factor 2

Allowing Dm2 to vary inside ± 30%, qm ± 20% and

marginalizing in qv :

| Dv | < 3 . 10-25


Likelihood analysis
Likelihood analysis 043008

Minimization of the function:

F = -2 ∑ ln f(Eni,Li ; Dm2,Dv,qm23,qv23)

i

f(x:a) = K × pMC × p(nm → nm)

Event by event analysis to exploit the full information

We used the events (106) with the most accurate energy

reconstruction : 25 GeV ≤ En ≤ 75 GeV

We allowed the oscillation mass parameters to vary along the 90% C.L. final contour of MACRO.

For each point of the contour we performed maximum likelihood fits for the VLI parameters


Results
Results 043008

The 90% C.L. limits obtained from the convolution of the local 90% C.L. upper/lower limits.


Search for gut magnetic monopoles
Search for GUT Magnetic Monopoles 043008

  • GUT MM, mM ≥ 1016 GeV

  • Redundancy: 3 different

  • subdetectors

  • Sensitivity for catalysis of

  • nucleon decay induced by MM

No candidates were found


Flux upper limits for 1g d gut mms eur phys jou c25 2002 511
Flux upper limits for 1g 043008D GUT MMs [Eur. Phys. Jou. C25 (2002) 511]

Direct searches ,isotropic flux

Flux of GUT MMs in the cosmic radiation:

 < 1.4 . 10-16 cm-2 s-1 sr-1 for 4 . 10-5 < b < 1


Search for mm induced proton decay eur phys jou c26 2002 163

e 043008+

MM

  • s = 5.10-25 cm2

    s = 10-24 cm2

Search for MM-induced proton decay [Eur. Phys. Jou. C26 (2002) 163]

M + p →M + e+ + p0

Slow MM track

using the streamer tube system

S = 4250 m2sr , t = 70000 hours

Fast e+ track


Search for nuclearites eur phys jou c13 2000 453
Search for nuclearites 043008[Eur Phys. Jou. C13 (2000) 453]

  • Aggregates of u, d, s quarks + electrons

  • Ground state of nuclear matter

  • Stable for any barion number 300 < A < 1057

  • Candidates for cold Dark Matter

White Mt. : 4800 m a.s.l.

Mt. Norikura : 2000 m a.s.l.

Ohya : 100 hg/cm2 undg.

MACRO : 3700 hg/cm2 undg.

Search for charged Q-balls :The MACRO limit is ~ 10-16 cm-2 s-1 sr-1, like for nuclearites


Search for dark matter wimps phys rev d60 1999 082002 hep ex 9905021
Search for dark matter WIMPs 043008[Phys. Rev. D60 (1999) 082002 ; hep-ex/9905021]

Search of an excess of neutrino events in the directions of

the Earth and the Sun

No excesses above the n background have been observed. The upper flux limit, F ~ 10-14 cm-2 s-1, excluded an important fraction of the parameters of various supersimmetric models


Search for lightly ionizing particles phys rev d62 2000 052003 hep ex 0402006

Final : only single tracks 043008

Previous (2000) : single+multi-tracks

Search for Lightly Ionizing Particles[Phys. Rev. D62 (2000) 052003 ; hep-ex/0402006]

Predicted by GUT and some supersimmetric models

Searched for with streamer tubes and scintillators

No candidates were found


Conclusions
Conclusions 043008

  • Standard (mass) nm oscillations :

  • No-oscillation hypothesis ruled out at 5-6s

  • Best parameters for nm → nt : Dm2 = 2.3 . 10-3 eV2 and sin2 2qm =1

  • nm→nsterile hypothesis disfavoured at 99.8 % C.L. with respect

  • to nm → nt

  • VLI : |Dv| upper limits of the order of 10-25

  • GUT Magnetic monopole search : no candidates. Upper flux limit of

  • ~ 1.4 . 10-16 cm-2 s-1 sr-1 for 4 . 10-5 < b < 1

  • Best existing limit in direct searches!

  • Nuclearite search : no candidates. Upper flux limit of

  • ~ 10-16 cm-2 s-1 sr-1 for b ~ 10-3

  • Charged Q-balls search : no candidates. Upper flux limit of

  • ~ 10-16 cm-2 s-1 sr-1

  • WIMP search : no candidates. Upper flux limit of ~ 10-14 cm-2 s-1

  • LIP search : no candidates. Upper flux limit of ~ 6.1.10-16 cm-2 s-1 sr-1