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Kingdom Protista. Diversity of Protists. Eukaryotic organisms that are not members of the kingdoms Plantae, Animalia, or Fungi. Diversity of Protists. 200,000 species Single-celled to 100 meter-long seaweed Eukaryotes Type and arrangement of organelles varies. Diversity of Protists.

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diversity of protists
Diversity of Protists
  • Eukaryotic organisms that are not members of the kingdoms Plantae, Animalia, or Fungi
diversity of protists3
Diversity of Protists
  • 200,000 species
  • Single-celled to 100 meter-long seaweed
  • Eukaryotes
    • Type and arrangement of organelles varies
diversity of protists4
Diversity of Protists
  • 3 major categories
    • Animal-like protists (Protozoans)
    • Plant-like protists (algae)
    • Fungus-like protists
diversity of protists5
Diversity of Protists
  • 3 major categories
    • Animal-like protists (Protozoans)
    • Plant-like protists (algae)
    • Fungus-like protists
protozoans
Protozoans
  • Animal-like protists
  • Heterotrophs
    • Feed on living organisms
    • Feed on dead organic matter
  • Can be motile or nonmotile
protozoans7
Protozoans
  • Types of protozoans
    • Classified according to method of movement
protozoans8
Protozoans
  • Types of protozoans:
    • Sarcodines
    • Zooflagellates
    • Ciliates
    • Sporozoans
protozoans9
Protozoans
  • Sarcodines
    • Move and “eat” using pseudopodia (amoeboid movement)
      • Cytoplasm-filled extensions of the plasma membrane
    • Blob-like (lack defined shape)
    • Lack a cell wall
protozoans10
Protozoans
  • Sarcodines
    • Move and “eat” using pseudopodia (amoeboid movement)
      • Cytoplasm-filled extensions of the plasma membrane
    • Blob-like (lack defined shape)
    • Lack a cell wall
protozoans11
Protozoans
  • Sarcodines

Amoeba eating a Paramecium

protozoans12
Protozoans
  • Sarcodines

Amoeba eating a Ciliate

protozoans13
Protozoans
  • Sarcodines
    • Live in marine and freshwater environments
    • Contain contractile vacuole which pumps water out of the cell to maintain homeostasis
protozoans14
Protozoans
  • Sarcodines
protozoans15
Protozoans
  • Sarcodines
    • Capture their food by surrounding it with pseudopods
    • Take it inside themselves by forming a food vacuole
    • Food is then digested
protozoans16
Protozoans
  • Sarcodines
    • Some have a hard outer shell made of calcium carbonate (Foraminiferans)
protozoans17
Protozoans
  • Sarcodines
    • Some have a hard outer shell made of silica (Heliozoans)
protozoans18
Protozoans
  • Sarcodines
    • Most reproduce asexually
      • One cell divides into 2 identical daughter cells
protozoans19
Protozoans
  • Sarcodines
    • Some form cysts to withstand unfavorable environmental conditions
protozoans20
Protozoans
  • Sarcodines
    • One species causes Amoebic dystentery
      • Live in pond and stream water (mainly in tropical parts of the world)
      • If live amoebas are swallowed with contaminated food or water they are destroyed by acid in stomach
protozoans21
Protozoans
  • Sarcodines
    • One species causes Amoebic dystentery
      • If cysts are swallowed, they survive the stomach and take up shop in intestines
      • Feed on intestinal wall, causing bleeding, diarrhea, and vomiting
      • If left untreated amoebas burrow completely through intestinal wall and enter bloodstream
        • Enter liver and other organs and form large cysts
        • Can be fatal
protozoans22
Protozoans
  • Types of protozoans:
    • Sarcodines
    • Zooflagellates
    • Ciliates
    • Sporozoans
protozoans23
Protozoans
  • Types of protozoans:
    • Sarcodines
    • Zooflagellates
    • Ciliates
    • Sporozoans
protozoans24
Protozoans
  • Zooflagellates
    • Move by whipping flagella
protozoans25
Protozoans
  • Zooflagellates
    • Move by whipping flagella
protozoans26
Protozoans
  • Zooflagellates
    • Mixotrica live in gut of termites
      • Termites cannot digest wood
      • Mixotrica living in digestive tract of termites can digest wood
      • Convert cellulose into carbohydrate termite and Mixotrica can use
protozoans27
Protozoans
  • Zooflagellates
    • Giardia live in intestines of animals
      • Beavers and muskrats are unaffected and help spread
      • Infections occur when people swallow contaminated water sources
protozoans28
Protozoans
  • Zooflagellates
    • Giardia live in intestines of animals
      • Humans who ingest Giardia get VERY, VERY SICK
      • Symptoms listed on the CDC website:
        • Diarrhea
        • Gas or flatulence often smelling of sulfur
        • Greasy stools that tend to float
        • Stomach cramps
        • Upset stomach or nausea.
protozoans29
Protozoans
  • Zooflagellates
    • Giardia live in intestines of animals
      • The CDC lists the following groups as being at the greatest risk:
        • International travelers
        • Backpackers, hikers, and campers who drink unfiltered, untreated water
        • Swimmers who swallow water while swimming in lakes, rivers, ponds, and streams
        • People who drink from shallow wells
protozoans30
Protozoans
  • Zooflagellates
    • Giardia live in intestines of animals
      • Mechanism that causes the symptoms is unknown
      • Symptoms can last 2-6 weeks
      • Infected persons can relapse at any time for the rest of their lives
protozoans31
Protozoans
  • Types of protozoans:
    • Sarcodines
    • Zooflagellates
    • Ciliates
    • Sporozoans
protozoans32
Protozoans
  • Types of protozoans:
    • Sarcodines
    • Zooflagellates
    • Ciliates
    • Sporozoans
protozoans33
Protozoans
  • Ciliates
    • Very diverse and large group
    • Move by beating cilia
    • Live in every aquatic habitat on the planet
protozoans34
Protozoans
  • Ciliates
    • Highly complex single-celled organisms
protozoans35
Protozoans
  • Ciliates
    • Highly complex single-celled organisms
      • Pellicle: tough outer membrane that protects the cell
      • Cilia: hair-like structures that project through the pellicle; beat in coordinated waves to produce motion
      • Micronucleus: nucleus responsible for sexual reproduction
      • Macronucleus: nucleus that controls all other functions in the cell
protozoans36
Protozoans
  • Ciliates
    • Highly complex single-celled organisms
      • Oral groove: cilia-lined opening in the pellicle into which food particles are swept
      • Gullet: structure in the cell that collects food particles and forms vacuoles around them
      • Food vacuole: membrane sack where food particles are broken down; nutrients are absorbed into cytoplasm
protozoans37
Protozoans
  • Ciliates
    • Highly complex single-celled organisms
      • Anal pore: opening through which wastes are expelled
      • Contractile vacuole: pumps excess water out of cell, back into hypotonic environment
paramecium
Paramecium

Contractile vacuole

Pellicle

Macronucleus

Food vacuole

Cilia

Micronucleus

Oral groove

Anal pore

Gullet

protozoans39
Protozoans
  • Ciliates
    • Reproduce asexually by mitosis and cytokinesis
protozoans40
Protozoans
  • Ciliates
    • If food is not plentiful can reproduce using a type of conjugation
      • 2 cells attach at oral grooves
      • Exchange copies of micronuclei
      • 2 cells detach and each divide asexually
protozoans41
Protozoans
  • Types of protozoans:
    • Sarcodines
    • Zooflagellates
    • Ciliates
    • Sporozoans
protozoans42
Protozoans
  • Types of protozoans:
    • Sarcodines
    • Zooflagellates
    • Ciliates
    • Sporozoans
protozoans43
Protozoans
  • Sporozoans
    • Can not move on their own
    • Must live in a nutrient-rich environment
    • All are parasitic
protozoans44
Protozoans
  • Sporozoans
    • Reproduce using spores
      • Reproductive cell (like an egg or sperm) that can produce a new organism without being fertilized
protozoans45
Protozoans
  • Sporozoans
    • Have a complex life cycle involving multiple hosts
protozoans46
Protozoans
  • Sporozoans
    • Have a complex life cycle involving multiple hosts (example: Plasmodium)
      • Causes malaria
protozoans47
Protozoans
  • Sporozoans
    • Have a complex life cycle involving multiple hosts (example: Plasmodium)
      • Lives part of its life in a mosquito and part in the blood of an animal
diversity of protists49
Diversity of Protists
  • 3 major categories
    • Animal-like protists (Protozoans)
    • Plant-like protists (algae)
    • Fungus-like protists
diversity of protists50
Diversity of Protists
  • 3 major categories
    • Animal-like protists (Protozoans)
    • Plant-like protists (algae)
    • Fungus-like protists
algae
Algae
  • Plant-like protists
algae52
Algae
  • Plant-like protists
  • Not plants because they lack:
    • Roots
    • Stems
    • Leaves
algae53
Algae
  • Multicellular or unicellular
  • Autotrophs
    • Produce food from sunlight
    • Can contain any of 4 types of chlorophyll and other pigments
    • Diversity of pigments produces wide range of possible colors
algae54
Algae
  • Classified according to pigments
    • (and a few other characteristics)
algae55
Algae
  • 7 phyla (groups)
    • Euglenophytes
    • Diatoms
    • Dinoflagellates
    • Chrysophytes
    • Red algae (Rhodophyta)
    • Brown algae (Phaeophyta)
    • Green algae (Chlorophyta)
algae56
Algae
  • 7 phyla (groups)
    • Euglenophytes
    • Diatoms
    • Dinoflagellates
    • Chrysophytes
    • Red algae (Rhodophyta)
    • Brown algae (Phaeophyta)
    • Green algae (Chlorophyta)
algae57
Algae
  • Euglenophytes
    • Strictly unicellular
    • Live in marine and freshwater
    • Display plant-like and animal-like characteristics
algae58
Algae
  • Euglenophytes

Animal-like traits

- Lack a cell wall made of cellulose

- Move around environment using flagella

- Can be heterotrophic if no light is available

Plant-like traits

- Cell wall-like structure (pellicle) made of protein

- Contain chlorophyll

-Perform photosynthesis

algae59
Algae
  • Euglenophytes
    • Have a structure called an eyespot
      • Senses light
      • Used to help Euglena orient itself toward brightest light in environment
      • Makes photosynthesis run more efficiently
euglena
Euglena

Nucleus and nucleolus

Chloroplast

Flagellum

Eyespot

Pellicle

Contractile vacuole

algae61
Algae
  • 7 phyla (groups)
    • Euglenophytes
    • Diatoms
    • Dinoflagellates
    • Chrysophytes
    • Red algae (Rhodophyta)
    • Brown algae (Phaeophyta)
    • Green algae (Chlorophyta)
algae62
Algae
  • 7 phyla (groups)
    • Euglenophytes
    • Diatoms
    • Dinoflagellates
    • Chrysophytes
    • Red algae (Rhodophyta)
    • Brown algae (Phaeophyta)
    • Green algae (Chlorophyta)
algae63
Algae
  • Diatoms (Bacillariophyta)
    • Unicellular
    • Live in marine and freshwater
    • Have outer shell made of silica
algae65
Algae
  • Diatoms (Bacillariophyta)
    • Unicellular
    • Live in marine and freshwater
    • Have outer shell made of silica
      • Ocean floor is littered with tons (literally) of dead diatoms
      • Diatom deposits are mined and used as an abrasive in many products
      • Also added to paint used on roads to make it shimmer at night
algae66
Algae
  • 7 phyla (groups)
    • Euglenophytes
    • Diatoms
    • Dinoflagellates
    • Chrysophytes
    • Red algae (Rhodophyta)
    • Brown algae (Phaeophyta)
    • Green algae (Chlorophyta)
algae67
Algae
  • 7 phyla (groups)
    • Euglenophytes
    • Diatoms
    • Dinoflagellates
    • Chrysophytes
    • Red algae (Rhodophyta)
    • Brown algae (Phaeophyta)
    • Green algae (Chlorophyta)
algae68
Algae
  • Dinoflagellates (Pyrrophyta)
    • Unicellular
    • Mostly marine
    • Cell wall made of thick plates of cellulose
    • Come in a wide variety of strange shapes
algae70
Algae
  • Dinoflagellates
    • 2 flagella positioned at a right angle
      • Whipping flagella causes cell to spin
algae71
Algae
  • Dinoflagellates
    • All are autotrophic
      • Contain chlorophyll, carotenoids, and red pigments
      • Most are red
      • Some are bioluminescent
algae72
Algae
  • Dinoflagellates
    • Some produce a deadly toxin
      • In the summer they can undergo rapid reproduction
      • So many are produced the water turns red resulting in a “RED TIDE”
algae74
Algae
  • Dinoflagellates
    • Some produce a deadly toxin
      • This also releases toxins into the water
      • Shellfish feed on dinoflagellates
      • Humans can be poisoned if they swim in a red tide or eat shellfish harvested during a red tide
algae75
Algae
  • 7 phyla (groups)
    • Euglenophytes
    • Diatoms
    • Dinoflagellates
    • Chrysophytes
    • Red algae (Rhodophyta)
    • Brown algae (Phaeophyta)
    • Green algae (Chlorophyta)
algae76
Algae
  • 7 phyla (groups)
    • Euglenophytes
    • Diatoms
    • Dinoflagellates
    • Chrysophytes
    • Red algae (Rhodophyta)
    • Brown algae (Phaeophyta)
    • Green algae (Chlorophyta)
algae77
Algae
  • Chrysophytes
    • Yellow-green and golden-brown algae
    • Unicellular
      • Some form thread-like colonies
    • Cell wall contains pectin, cellulose, or both
    • Store food as oil
algae78
Algae
  • Chrysophytes
algae79
Algae
  • 7 phyla (groups)
    • Euglenophytes
    • Diatoms
    • Dinoflagellates
    • Chrysophytes
    • Red algae (Rhodophyta)
    • Brown algae (Phaeophyta)
    • Green algae (Chlorophyta)
algae80
Algae
  • 7 phyla (groups)
    • Euglenophytes
    • Diatoms
    • Dinoflagellates
    • Chrysophytes
    • Red algae (Rhodophyta)
    • Brown algae (Phaeophyta)
    • Green algae (Chlorophyta)
algae81
Algae
  • Red algae (Rhodophyta)
    • Red seaweed
    • Multicellular
    • Marine
      • Tropical waters
      • Rocky shores of cold water
    • Attach to rocks with holdfasts
algae82
Algae
  • Red algae (Rhodophyta)
    • Contain chlorophyll
    • Also contain phycobilins
      • Another photosynthetic pigment
      • Red algae can live at great depths
      • Phycobilins absorb the wavelengths of light that penetrate deep into the water (green violet, and blue)
algae83
Algae
  • Red algae (Rhodophyta)
algae84
Algae
  • 7 phyla (groups)
    • Euglenophytes
    • Diatoms
    • Dinoflagellates
    • Chrysophytes
    • Red algae (Rhodophyta)
    • Brown algae (Phaeophyta)
    • Green algae (Chlorophyta)
algae85
Algae
  • 7 phyla (groups)
    • Euglenophytes
    • Diatoms
    • Dinoflagellates
    • Chrysophytes
    • Red algae (Rhodophyta)
    • Brown algae (Phaeophyta)
    • Green algae (Chlorophyta)
algae86
Algae
  • Brown algae (Phaeophyta)
    • Brown seaweed (including kelp)
    • Multicellular
      • Can grow to more than 60 meters in length
    • Marine
      • Rocky coasts
      • Cool water
algae87
Algae
  • Brown algae (Phaeophyta)
    • Contain chlorophyll
    • Contain the carotenoid fucoxanthin (yellowish-brown)
algae88
Algae
  • Brown algae (Phaeophyta)
    • Kelp
      • Large, complex brown algae
      • Composed of a thallus: simple plant lacking roots and leaves
      • Thallus is divided into sections:
        • holdfast = roots
        • stipe = stem
        • blade = leaves
thallus
Thallus

Blades

Blades

Stipe

Holdfasts

algae90
Algae
  • Brown algae (Phaeophyta)
    • Kelp
      • Many have air bladders which help the kelp to float on the surface in order to maintain exposure to the sun for photosynthesis
      • Can form dense forests on shallow sea floors
algae91
Algae
  • 7 phyla (groups)
    • Euglenophytes
    • Diatoms
    • Dinoflagellates
    • Chrysophytes
    • Red algae (Rhodophyta)
    • Brown algae (Phaeophyta)
    • Green algae (Chlorophyta)
algae92
Algae
  • 7 phyla (groups)
    • Euglenophytes
    • Diatoms
    • Dinoflagellates
    • Chrysophytes
    • Red algae (Rhodophyta)
    • Brown algae (Phaeophyta)
    • Green algae (Chlorophyta)
algae93
Algae
  • Green algae (Chlorophyta)
    • Can be uni- or multicellular
    • Most live in freshwater
      • Some are marine
      • Some live in moist soil or on tree trunks
      • Some live in snow
      • A few live in the fur of sloths
algae95
Algae
  • Green algae (Chlorophyta)
    • Contain chlorophyll (duh…green)
    • Some also have a yellow pigment
algae96
Algae
  • Green algae (Chlorophyta)
    • Wide variety of “living arrangements”
      • Unicellular
      • Multicellular filaments
      • Multicellular sheets
      • Colonies: group of cells living in close association with one another (they are not multicellular)
algae97
Algae
  • Green algae (Chlorophyta)
    • Colonies
      • Forms a hollow sphere
      • Cells are held together by strands of cytoplasm
      • Flagella point outward and beat in coordination
      • New colonies develop inside the sphere and are released when they reach a certain size
colonies volvox
Colonies: Volvox

Single colony

Small dots are

individual cells

Developing

daughter colony

diversity of protists99
Diversity of Protists
  • 3 major categories
    • Animal-like protists (Protozoans)
    • Plant-like protists (algae)
    • Fungus-like protists
diversity of protists100
Diversity of Protists
  • 3 major categories
    • Animal-like protists (Protozoans)
    • Plant-like protists (algae)
    • Fungus-like protists
fungus like protists
Fungus-like Protists
  • All are decomposers
    • Obtain energy by decomposing organic material
fungus like protists103
Fungus-like Protists
  • Slime molds
  • Water molds
fungus like protists104
Fungus-like Protists
  • Slime molds
  • Water molds
fungus like protists105
Fungus-like Protists
  • Slime molds
    • Live in cool, moist areas (forest floors)
fungus like protists106
Fungus-like Protists
  • Slime molds
    • Live in cool, moist areas (forest floors)
    • Great color variation:
      • Bright yellow or orange
      • Blue
      • Black
fungus like protists108
Fungus-like Protists
  • Slime molds
    • Animal-like during feeding stage of life cycle
      • Move through environment
      • Engulf food similar to amoebas
fungus like protists109
Fungus-like Protists
  • Slime molds
    • Animal-like during feeding stage of life cycle
      • Move through environment
      • Engulf food similar to amoebas
    • Fungus-like during reproductive stage of life cycle
      • Reproduce via spores
fungus like protists110
Fungus-like Protists
  • Slime molds
    • 2 groups (separated by mode of reproduction)
      • Acellular slime molds (Myxomycota)
      • Cellular slime molds (Acrasiomycota)
fungus like protists111
Fungus-like Protists
  • Acellular slime molds
    • Form a plasmodium during feeding stage
      • Mass of cytoplasm with numerous nuclei
      • No cell walls or membranes
    • Creeps through moist environment, engulfing microorganisms
    • Can get big: up to 1 m in diameter
fungus like protists112
Fungus-like Protists
  • Acellular slime molds
    • When environment dries up, plasmodium transforms itself into reproductive structures
    • Meiosis (formation of spores) occurs
    • Spores are dispersed by the wind and germinate to form a plasmodium when conditions are right
fungus like protists113
Fungus-like Protists
  • Slime molds
    • 2 groups (separated by mode of reproduction)
      • Acellular slime molds (Myxomycota)
      • Cellular slime molds (Acrasiomycota)
fungus like protists114
Fungus-like Protists
  • Slime molds
    • 2 groups (separated by mode of reproduction)
      • Acellular slime molds (Myxomycota)
      • Cellular slime molds (Acrasiomycota)
fungus like protists115
Fungus-like Protists
  • Cellular slime molds
    • Exist as individual cells during feeding stage
      • Amoeba-like in structure
      • Divide via cell division
fungus like protists116
Fungus-like Protists
  • Cellular slime molds
    • Exist as individual cells during feeding stage
      • Amoeba-like in structure
      • Divide via cell division
    • When food becomes scarce cells clump together into plasmodium-like structure
      • Not a plasmodium because cells are still separated
      • Reproduce with nearby individuals
fungus like protists117
Fungus-like Protists
  • Slime molds
  • Water molds
fungus like protists118
Fungus-like Protists
  • Slime molds
  • Water molds
fungus like protists119
Fungus-like Protists
  • Water molds (Oomycota)
    • Live in water or very moist places
fungus like protists120
Fungus-like Protists
  • Water molds (Oomycota)
    • Live in water or very moist places
    • White, fuzzy growth that appears on decomposing organic material
fungus like protists122
Fungus-like Protists
  • Water molds (Oomycota)
    • Fungus-like because they form a mass of filaments over organic material which digest the o.m., then they absorb the digested nutrients
fungus like protists123
Fungus-like Protists
  • Water molds (Oomycota)
    • Not a fungus because they produce reproductive bodies with flagella
fungus like protists124
Fungus-like Protists
  • Water molds (Oomycota)
    • Downy mildew is a serious problem for agriculture
fungus like protists125
Fungus-like Protists
  • Water molds (Oomycota)
    • Downy mildew is a serious problem for agriculture
      • Vineyards
      • Onion and garlic
      • Cucumbers
      • Cantaloupes and related melons
      • Lettuce and related plants