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Kingdom Protista. The Protists : (about 70,000 species) Eukaryotic = have a membrane bound nucleus Single-celled or Multicellular Lack a cell wall. Protist Divisions. Animal -like PROTOZOANS Plant -like

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kingdom protista
Kingdom Protista

The Protists : (about 70,000 species)

Eukaryotic

= have a membrane bound nucleus

Single-celled

or

Multicellular

Lack a cell wall

protist divisions
Protist Divisions

Animal-like

PROTOZOANS

Plant-like

ALGAE

Fungus-like MOLDS

slide3

Animallike

Plantlike

Funguslike

Take in food from the environment

Produce food by photosynthesis

Obtain food by external digestion

Decomposers

Parasites

Concept Map

Section 20-1

Protists

are classified by

which include

which

which

which

animal like protists
Animal-Like Protists

4 Phylums:

categorized by method of MOVEMENT!

phylum sarcodina
Phylum Sarcodina

1.) Phylum Sarcodina – “sarcodines”

- Protozoans who move by using…

PSEUDOPODS

- temporary extension of the cytoplasm

sarcodines cont d1
Sarcodines (cont’d)

Ex; Amoeba

- found in ponds/streams

- feeds on bacteria/small algae/small protozoans

- by Phagocytosis

slide8

Contractile vacuole

Pseudopods

Nucleus

Food vacuole

Figure 20-4 An Amoeba

Section 20-2

amoeba cont d
Amoeba (cont’d)

Reproduction:

Asexual – (mitosis)

Sexual – gametes

Form through Meiosis,

Unite and form a zygote.

sarcodines and humans
Sarcodines and Humans
  • Many are Parasitic

infect human oral cavity and intestines

- causes ulcers

and

- amoebic dysentary

phylum ciliate
Phylum Ciliate
  • Single celled Protists with CILIA present in at least 1 stage of their life cycle

CILIA = short, hairlike structures that extend from the cell.

- function in

movement AND foodgetting.

ciliates cont d
Ciliates (cont’d)
  • 2 kinds of nuclei

1. Macronucleus

- for cell growth

2. Micronucleus

- reproduction

  • Free-living

- in fresh and salt water ( some parasites)

ciliates cont d1
Ciliates (cont’d)

Ex; Paramecium

- slipper shaped/ live

in freshwater ponds.

- have a PELLICLE

- flexible protein

under membrane to

give it shape and support.

paramecium ciliates cont d
Paramecium (ciliates) (cont’d)

Movement:

- with Cilia (swim) – toward food, or away from harmful substances.

Eating:

- Cilia capture food

- sweep it to Oral groove

- to gullet….

forms a Food Vacuole – pinches off into cytoplasm…

- undigested food exits out the Anal Pore.

paramecium cont d
Paramecium (cont’d)

Maintain water balance with use of

CONTRACTILE VACUOLES

slide16

Trichocysts

Oral groove

Lysosomes

Gullet

Anal pore

Contractile vacuole

Micronucleus

Macronucleus

Food vacuoles

Cilia

Figure 20-5 A Ciliate

Section 20-2

paramecium cont d1
Paramecium (cont’d)

Reproduction:

Asexual – mitosis

Sexual – Conjugation

a. 2 paramecium join at oral groove

b. macronucleus disintegrates

c. exchange a pair of micronuclei

d. paramecium separate

e. macronuclei reform

phylum zoomastigophora flagellates
Phylum Zoomastigophora(flagellates)

Flagellates –

Protozoans who move with flagella

- long, whiplike extensions

- 1- several

  • fresh and salt waters
  • Most are Parasites
flagellates cont d
Flagellates (cont’d)

Ex.; Trypanosoma

- parasite

-- causes Sleeping Sickness

- transmitted from animal to animal by blood-sucking Tse-Tse Fly

- in blood, then infects and inflames CNS.

phylum sporozoa
Phylum Sporozoa

Sporozoans – ALL ARE PARASITES!!

- No locomotion as adults

- Produce Sporozoites

Ex. ; Plasmodium Vivax

- causes Malaria

plasmodium vivax life cycle
Plasmodium Vivax Life Cycle

Mosquito bites infected person

- takes in plasmodium Gametocytes

-- gametocytes become gametes, and fertilize in mosquito’s digestive system

--- Zygote forms, develops a cyst with spores inside

--spores continue to multiply until cyst bursts, releasing spores to mosquito’s salivary glands.

p vivax life cycle cont d
P. Vivax life cycle (cont’d)
  • Mosquito bites an uninfected human

-- releases spores into human blood-stream

---spores invade liver, RBC’s

---- some become Gametocytes……

…………………………………………………………………..Start over again……..

plant like protists algae
Plant-Like Protists = ALGAE

Algae:

- classified according to the type of photosynthetic pigment.

Unicellular

or

Multicellular

unicellular algae
Unicellular Algae
  • Euglena

- have plant-like and animal-like characteristics

- have chloroplasts – disappear in dark, used in light

- 2 flagella

- no cell wall

- Eyespot – mass of red pigment used to detect light.

unicellular algae1
Unicellular Algae

2. Golden Algae

- largest group

- in oceans and fresh water

ex; Diatoms

- Cell walls made up of 2 overlapping halves

- cell wall made up of pectin and silica

Reproduction:

Asexual – mitosis

Sexual – gametes combine

unicellular algae cont d
Unicellular Algae (cont’d)

3. Fire Algae

- Abundant red/yellow pigments

- Cell wall of cellulose

- 2 flagella

- Many can produce their own Light

= Bioluminescence

multicellular algae
Multicellular Algae
  • Largest Protists
  • Red Algae

- tropical waters

- attach to rocks with HOLDFASTS

- use pigment = Phycoerythrin

-- captures energy of blue light

--penetrates deep water

multicellular algae1
Multicellular Algae

2. Brown Algae

- Salt water

- “Kelps” or “Sea-weed”

- pigment = Fucoxanthin

- has Air-bladders =

- broad leaf-like blades – connect to stalk by STIPE

- Holdfasts

A compound in Brown algae is used to make….

green algae
Green Algae

1-celled, colonial, multi-cellular

ex.; Volvox

colonial

shaped like a hollow ball

Ex.; Spirogyra

live in ponds and streams

multicellular

fungus like protists
Fungus-Like Protists
  • Acellular Slime Molds
  • Cellular Slime Molds

- Mildew and Water Molds