Kingdom Protista. The Protists : (about 70,000 species) Eukaryotic = have a membrane bound nucleus Single-celled or Multicellular Lack a cell wall. Protist Divisions. Animal -like PROTOZOANS Plant -like
The Protists : (about 70,000 species)
= have a membrane bound nucleus
Lack a cell wall
Take in food from the environment
Produce food by photosynthesis
Obtain food by external digestion
are classified by
categorized by method of MOVEMENT!
1.) Phylum Sarcodina – “sarcodines”
- Protozoans who move by using…
- temporary extension of the cytoplasm
- found in ponds/streams
- feeds on bacteria/small algae/small protozoans
- by Phagocytosis
Figure 20-4 An Amoeba
Asexual – (mitosis)
Sexual – gametes
Form through Meiosis,
Unite and form a zygote.
infect human oral cavity and intestines
- causes ulcers
- amoebic dysentary
CILIA = short, hairlike structures that extend from the cell.
- function in
movement AND foodgetting.
- for cell growth
- in fresh and salt water ( some parasites)
- slipper shaped/ live
in freshwater ponds.
- have a PELLICLE
- flexible protein
under membrane to
give it shape and support.
- with Cilia (swim) – toward food, or away from harmful substances.
- Cilia capture food
- sweep it to Oral groove
- to gullet….
forms a Food Vacuole – pinches off into cytoplasm…
- undigested food exits out the Anal Pore.
Maintain water balance with use of
Figure 20-5 A Ciliate
Asexual – mitosis
Sexual – Conjugation
a. 2 paramecium join at oral groove
b. macronucleus disintegrates
c. exchange a pair of micronuclei
d. paramecium separate
e. macronuclei reform
Protozoans who move with flagella
- long, whiplike extensions
- 1- several
-- causes Sleeping Sickness
- transmitted from animal to animal by blood-sucking Tse-Tse Fly
- in blood, then infects and inflames CNS.
Sporozoans – ALL ARE PARASITES!!
- No locomotion as adults
- Produce Sporozoites
Ex. ; Plasmodium Vivax
- causes Malaria
Mosquito bites infected person
- takes in plasmodium Gametocytes
-- gametocytes become gametes, and fertilize in mosquito’s digestive system
--- Zygote forms, develops a cyst with spores inside
--spores continue to multiply until cyst bursts, releasing spores to mosquito’s salivary glands.
-- releases spores into human blood-stream
---spores invade liver, RBC’s
---- some become Gametocytes……
…………………………………………………………………..Start over again……..
- classified according to the type of photosynthetic pigment.
- have plant-like and animal-like characteristics
- have chloroplasts – disappear in dark, used in light
- 2 flagella
- no cell wall
- Eyespot – mass of red pigment used to detect light.
2. Golden Algae
- largest group
- in oceans and fresh water
- Cell walls made up of 2 overlapping halves
- cell wall made up of pectin and silica
Asexual – mitosis
Sexual – gametes combine
3. Fire Algae
- Abundant red/yellow pigments
- Cell wall of cellulose
- 2 flagella
- Many can produce their own Light
- tropical waters
- attach to rocks with HOLDFASTS
- use pigment = Phycoerythrin
-- captures energy of blue light
--penetrates deep water
2. Brown Algae
- Salt water
- “Kelps” or “Sea-weed”
- pigment = Fucoxanthin
- has Air-bladders =
- broad leaf-like blades – connect to stalk by STIPE
A compound in Brown algae is used to make….
1-celled, colonial, multi-cellular
shaped like a hollow ball
live in ponds and streams
- Mildew and Water Molds