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Intelligence. What is “intelligence”? Why/how do we measure it? What do we do with the scores ? Link to Human Intelligence Map. Major Issues. Theoretical vs. Psychometric base One, two, or many factors Nature vs. nurture Individual or group administration Verbal or non-verbal

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Presentation Transcript
intelligence
Intelligence
  • What is “intelligence”?
  • Why/how do we measure it?
  • What do we do with the scores?
  • Link to Human Intelligence Map
major issues
Major Issues
  • Theoretical vs. Psychometric base
  • One, two, or many factors
  • Nature vs. nurture
  • Individual or group administration
  • Verbal or non-verbal
  • Culture bias? Free? Fair?
1869 sir francis galton
1869 - Sir Francis Galton
  • “father of intelligence testing”
  • Hereditary Genius (eugenics)
  • sensory apparatus
1905 alfred binet theodore simon
1905 - Alfred Binet & Theodore Simon
  • Original test -
  • classification of mentally retarded
  • ability for sound judgements
  • age related tasks
  • 1916 - Terman - US revision = Stanford/Binet
1927 spearman
1927 - Spearman

Two-factor theory

g = general intellectual factor

s = specific factor

(e = measurement error)

1935 thurstone
1935 - Thurstone

Primary Mental Abilities (PMA)

7 Group factors

verbal comprehension

word fluency

number

space

associative memory

perceptual speed

reasoning

1939 david wechsler
1939 - David Wechsler
  • adult intelligence (first, children later)

act purposefully

think rationally

deal effectively with environment

  • verbal and performance abilities

(also full scale)

1959 guilford
1959 - Guilford

Three faces of intelligence

5 Operations - what a person does

5 Content - material it is done on

6 Products - form in which information is stored

(apply operation to content = product)

150 possible combinations

1963 cattell
1963 - Cattell

crystallized abilities = acquired knowledge and facts (declarative)

fluid abilities = reasoning (procedural)

1975 gardner
1975 - Gardner

Multiple Intelligences

logical-mathematical

linguistic

spatial

musical

bodily-kinesthetic

interpersonal

intrapersonal

(naturalist, spiritual, existential)

1980 sternberg
1980 - Sternberg

“successful intelligence = the ability to adapt to, shape, and select environments to accomplish one’s goals and those of one’s society and culture” (1999)

Triarchic theory

metacomponents (metacognition)

performance components (procedural)

knowledge acquisition components

(declarative)

1960 90 information processing approach
1960 - 90 Information Processing Approach

Aleksandr Luria

How information is processed, not What is processed

Parallel (simultaneous)

Serial (successive, sequential)

information processing measures
Information processing measures

Kaufman - (K-ABC)

Das and Naglieri = CAS (Cognitive Assessment System)

PASS – system

P = planning

A = attention

S = Simultaneous

S = Successive