Language Ideology and English. Jenkins (2003, pp. 29-33, 43-47, 138-143). Standard Language Ideology: S tandard language. Standard Language is the term used for that variety of a language which is considered to be the norm.
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Jenkins (2003, pp. 29-33, 43-47, 138-143)
Language standards are the reverse sidew of the standard language coin. They are the prescriptive language rules which together constitute the standard and to which all members of a language community are exposed and urged to conform during education, regardless of the local variety.
- not to function in the interest of certain groups, especially speakers of New Englishes
- should be made more inclusive (Parakrama, 1995)
- ‘quite abnormal’ (Hudson, 1996: 32)
- ‘the result of a direct and deliberate intervention by society’ (ibid)
Selection: one variety rather than any other
Codification: ‘fixed’ in grammar books
Elaboration of function: in government, law, education, science and literature
Acceptance: standard variety as a strong unifying force for the state, as a symbol of its independence of other states…and as a marker of its difference from other states
- it is not pronunciation (Strevens, 1985)
- used in speech and writing by educated native speakers (Trudgill, 1984)
- used in writing (Hughes and Trudgill, 1979)
- for teaching in schools and universities (ibid)
- carrying most prestige, most widely understood (Crystal, 1995)
A Social Dialect (Trudgill, 1999)
- Non-standard native varieties
- Non-standard non-native varieties
Due to attitudes toward race in the US and class in the UK
- 6000-7000 languages in the world
- two languages will die each month
- English operates in a global context
- politically and economically powerful English speakers benefited massively
Made aware of the value of maintaining within linguistic English learners’ repertoires their indigenous language(s) for local identity functions alongside their English.
‘citizens of the UK, the USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and other largely English-speaking countries…to avoid being the monolingual dinosaurs in a multilingual world’ (Brumfit, 2002: 11).
The learning of any language would help to reduce that fear of the ‘other’ which is bred out of ignorance of difference, and which often leads to racist attitudes and behavours, and to campaigns such as ‘English Only’.
However, the expectation is overwhelmingly that Immigrant and indigenous minorities (which in some cases are very large minorities) should learn the lingua-cultural practices of the L1 English population.
‘standard’ L1 Englishes
‘non-standard’ L1 Englishes
‘standard’ L2 Englishes
‘non-standard’ L2 Englishes
non-use of English
(Jenkins, 2003: 142)
standard spoken Englishes for international use (bilingual varieties)
standard spoken English for local use (L2 and L1 contexts)
non-standard Englishes (L2 and L1 contexts)
Jenkins, 2003: 143