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Fuel Cells: A Feasible Future. May O3-16. Today’s Agenda. Problem statement Fuel cell overview and types Market overview Utility interconnection Different fuel types Economics Summary. Problem Statement.

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Presentation Transcript
today s agenda
Today’s Agenda
  • Problem statement
  • Fuel cell overview and types
  • Market overview
  • Utility interconnection
  • Different fuel types
  • Economics
  • Summary

May 03-16

problem statement
Problem Statement

MidAmerican Energy desired an analysis of where fuel cell technology is and its economic feasibility for distributed applications.

  • Can fuel cell derived energy provide a competitive $ / kW to current energy production methods?
  • How do fuel cells function?
  • Where can fuel cells be utilized?
  • When can fuel cells be expected to reach market?
  • Who will benefit from fuel cell energy?
  • Why are fuel cells worth investing in?
  • What additional benefits and pit falls exist with fuel cells?

May 03-16

research approach
Research Approach
  • Address the following:
    • Advantages / disadvantages of fuel cells
    • Electrical distribution issues and safety
    • Required resources
    • Market readiness
    • Economics
    • Life expectancy

May 03-16

fuel cell overview
Fuel Cell Overview
  • Extracted hydrogen enters the anode
  • Oxygen (Air) enters the cathode
  • Hydrogen electrons separate via anode catalyst; the electrolyte transfers the hydrogen ions only

http://www.fe.doe.gov/coal_power/fuelcells/fuelcells_howitworks.shtml

May 03-16

fuel cell overview7
Fuel Cell Overview
  • Electrons are utilized in an external circuit for energy consumption
  • Electrons, hydrogen ions, and oxygen recombine into water

http://www.fe.doe.gov/coal_power/fuelcells/fuelcells_howitworks.shtml

May 03-16

common fc specifications
Common FC Specifications
  • Expected Life
    • Entire unit lasts approximately 20 years
    • Fuel Cell stack lasts about 40,000 hours
    • Increases based on capacity of operation
  • Efficiency
    • Typically between 30% and 50% (No CHP)
    • Decreases based on capacity of operation
  • All types can be used as CHP units

May 03-16

utility implications
Utility Implications
  • State of Iowa
    • Fuel cells not “Renewable energy sources”
  • United States Federal Government
    • May be considered “Renewable energy sources”
  • Department of Defense
    • Climate Change Rebate Program
    • $1000/kW

May 03-16

natural gas market
Natural Gas Market

Source: Natural Gas Annual, U.S. Department of Energy

May 03-16

natural gas supply demand
Natural Gas Supply & Demand

Natural gas Supply

Natural gas Demand

May 03-16

current fuel cell market

Manufacturer

Size

Units Installed

Date of Commercialization

FC Type

Ballard

250kW

0

2004

PEMFC

FuelCell Energy

250kW

20+

Currently marketed

PEMFC

Plug Power

25 kW

78

Currently marketed

PEMFC

Siemens Westinghouse

200kW

500kW

0

250 kW, 10/2003

500 kW, 2005

SOFC

UTC

200kW

250+

Currently marketed

PEMFC

Current Fuel Cell Market

May 03-16

applicable size range
Applicable Size Range

Source: American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) 2002 publication, Fuel Cells for Building Applications

May 03-16

initial commercialization
Initial Commercialization

Source: American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) 2002 publication, Fuel Cells for Building Applications

May 03-16

first cost estimates
First Cost Estimates

Source: American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) 2002 publication, Fuel Cells for Building Applications

May 03-16

utility interconnection
Utility Interconnection

Major requirements for distributed power generation (DPG) summarized from the IEEE Draft Standard P1547 in three categories:

  • General requirements
  • Safety and protection requirements
  • Power quality requirements
  • Grid independent
  • Grid parallel

May 03-16

interconnection gen requirements
Interconnection: Gen. Requirements
  • Voltage Regulation:
    • 120/240V s-ph: max 126/252V and min 114/226V
    • 600V 3-ph: max 630V and min 570V
  • System Frequency:
    • For system operating at 60 Hz ac, IEEE Standard 929 recommended range 59.3 – 60.5 Hz for low power system

May 03-16

slide19

Interconnection: Gen. Requirements

  • Synchronization:
    • DPG shall not cause a voltage fluctuation at the PCC more or less than 5% of the prevailing voltage level
  • Monitoring Provision:
    • A DPG of 250 kW or larger shall have provisions for monitoring connection status, and real and reactive power output at the point of connection

May 03-16

interconnection gen requirements20
Interconnection: Gen. Requirements
  • Isolation Device:
    • A readily accessible, visible-break isolation device shall be located between the DPG unit and the area EPS
  • Grounding:
    • Grounding scheme and the grounding fault protection of DPGs should be coordinate with the EPS operators

May 03-16

interconnection safety protection
Interconnection: Safety & Protection
  • Voltage Disturbances:

May 03-16

interconnection safety protection22
Interconnection: Safety & Protection
  • Frequency Disturbances:
    • Follow area EPS frequency normal range. Energize EPS within a specified time. Adjustable freq. range and disconnection delay time
  • Loss of Synchronism:
    • A DPG of 250 kW or larger equipped with loss of synchronism protection functions

May 03-16

interconnection safety protection23
Interconnection: Safety & Protection
  • Reconnection:
    • A DPG energize area EPS, and remain disconnected until voltage and frequency have returned to and maintained normal ranges for 5 minutes
  • Anti-Islanding:
    • A DPG detects island condition and cease to energize the area EPS within 2 seconds of its formation

May 03-16

interconnection power quality25
Interconnection: Power Quality
  • DC Current Injection:
    • A DPG and its interconnection system shall not inject dc current greater than 0.5% of its rated output current into the area EPS at the PCC
  • Flicker:
    • Objectionable when it causes a fluctuation of the light level
    • A DPG shall not create objectionable flickers for other customers on area EPS

May 03-16

fuels
Fuels
  • Five types of fuel:
    • Hydrogen
    • Natural gas
    • Methanol
    • LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas)
    • Coal gas

May 03-16

fuels27
Fuels
  • Hydrogen
    • No adequate production and transportation infrastructure to support hydrogen fuel cells for utility generation.
    • Current storage methods include compressed gas, liquid hydrogen, metal hydride, storage in pipelines and carbon-based systems.
    • Very high production and storage cost.
    • Second step in the U.S. Department of Energy's National Hydrogen Vision and Roadmap.

May 03-16

fuels28
Fuels

Hydrogen Storage Cost

May 03-16

fuels29
Fuels
  • Natural Gas
    • Existing production and transportation infrastructure able to support use fuel cells as generation units.
    • Market ready
      • Infrastructure
      • Fuel cell design

May 03-16

fuels30
Fuels
  • Methanol, Fuel Oil, LPG, and Coal Gas
    • No adequate infrastructure to support fuel cells for utility generation.
    • Require storage tanks.
    • High cost of storage facilities.
    • Different safety measures depending on fuel type.

May 03-16

economics overview
Economics Overview
  • Economic feasibility
  • DoD application checklist / calculators
  • Results from field evaluations

May 03-16

economic feasibility
Cost of Electricity

Pros:

Relatively less data intensive

Provides an indication of application feasibility

Cons:

Estimating the thermal energy recovered from a fuel cell system, accurately

Determining the cost of utility supplied electricity and annual energy use

Annual Savings based on Hourly Cost .

Pros:

Provides a fact & data driven evaluation on application feasibility

Apply different operational strategies

Cons:

Large amount of data collection and evaluation must occur before the resulting annual savings value is established

Economic Feasibility

May 03-16

dod application calculators
DoD Application Calculators

DoD Fuel Cell - Step-by-Step Outline

DoD Fuel Cell - Interactive Guide

Application worksheet

May 03-16

field evaluations
Field Evaluations

Chugach Electric Association

1MW (5 - 200KW paralleled PAFCs) 3/00 – 3/01

Site: USPS processing facility Anchorage, AK

SCADA controlled multiple fuel cell dist. gen.

Project cost: $5.5M - $5500/kW (R&D, manufacture, install)

Two revenues:

USPS prepaid $1M electric sales (3.6 cents/kWh)

Excess power exported @ 2.5 cents/kWh

Maintenance: $0.0273/kWh

Fuel: $0.0342/kWh

Operating cost: $0.0615/kWh

May 03-16

field evaluations35
Field Evaluations

Chugach Electric Association

Project declared commercial 11/00

18 unscheduled shutdowns for 221hrs of 14400hrs =98.46%

March/01 13.43MBtu provided to site at no charge

Reported that boiler fired only once during winter

Problems:

Fuel cell starting attempts

Site management system (SMS) development

Benefits:

No need for UPS / diesel generator system because of SMS

Thermal energy for building heating

Grid independent and grid parallel operation

May 03-16

field evaluations36
Field Evaluations

Rock Island Arsenal MCFC

Source: Engineer Research and Development Center / Construction Engineering Research Laboratory, Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFCs) for Department of Defense Applications, pg. 122, November 2000, ERDC/CERL TR-00-34

May 03-16

field evaluations37
Field Evaluations

Rock Island Arsenal MCFC

Source: Engineer Research and Development Center / Construction Engineering Research Laboratory, Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFCs) for Department of Defense Applications, pg. 122, November 2000, ERDC/CERL TR-00-34

May 03-16

economic considerations
Economic Considerations
  • High electric to natural gas ratio
  • Over sized steam reformer

For the production of hydrogen as a third benefit

  • Electrical and thermal load profiles
  • Natural gas rate structure
  • Capacity factors above 50%
  • Independent power producers: off-peak sales
  • Fuel cell production volume
  • Existing infrastructure

May 03-16

summary
Summary

Many factors need taken into consideration when evaluating a site for fuel cell installation. By covering the types of fuel cells, market readiness, available fuels, and economic considerations can we begin to understand the variables that determine feasibility. Therefore, only through intense data collection of electrical and thermal needs for a specific application can a determination be made.

May 03-16

questions
Questions?

May 03-16

thank you
Thank You!

May 03-16