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Fuel Cells
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  1. Fuel Cells Kendra Lena FYSM Science and the Consumer Dr. Moyer

  2. What are fuel cells? • Devices that generate electricity from chemical reactions • The reactions take place between electrodes • Catalyst • Electrolyte • 5 Types • Alkali, Molten Carbonate (MCFC), Phosphoric Acid (PAFC), Proton Exchanging Membrane (PEM), Solid Oxide (SOFC)

  3. How do they work? http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/fcv_PEM.shtml

  4. Background Information http://www.fuelcelltoday.com/about-fuel-cells/history

  5. Science and Technology • Transportation Power • Cars, vans, trucks, busses, trains, trams, ferries, small boats, small aircraft • Portable Power • Military applications, small personal electronics, large personal electronics • Stationary Power • Replace power grids

  6. Advantages • Higher efficiency • Silently operate • Less pollution • Lessens dependency on foreign oil • Hydrogen is accessible • Military benefits

  7. Advantages • Longer operation time • Easy maintenance • No “memory effect” when getting fueled

  8. Disadvantages • Expensive • Difficulty transporting hydrogen • Large in size • Lack of current infrastructure

  9. Economics • Fuel Cell Cost Migration Path • Currently more than $4,000 per kW • Platinum currently $44.34 per gram

  10. Government • Hydrogen Fuel Initiative • 2003 • President Bush • $1.2 Billion for research to develop clean, hydrogen fueled automobiles • Less dependency on foreign oil • Attempt for large numbers of Americans to use hydrogen fuel cell vehicles by 2020

  11. Government • Hydrogen Fuel Initiative • "A simple chemical reaction between hydrogen and oxygen generates energy, which can be used to power a car producing only water, not exhaust fumes. With a new national commitment, our scientists and engineers will overcome obstacles to taking these cars from laboratory to showroom so that the first car driven by a child born today could be powered by hydrogen, and pollution-free. Join me in this important innovation to make our air significantly cleaner, and our country much less dependent on foreign sources of energy.” - President Bush, State of the Union Address, January 28, 2003.

  12. Social • Less dependence on oil • Less pollution • Less dependence on foreign countries • Fuel Cell Vehicles for future • Basis of future automobile constructional design changes

  13. Future • Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCVs) • Pure hydrogen (liquid or gas) • Fuel cell stack • PEMFC current most studied fuel cell type • Problems • Complicated hydrogen storage (high costs, large volume) • No transportation oriented distribution options • Advantages • High electric efficiency • Zero emissions using hydrogen • Mechanical simplicity (less noise, less maintenance)

  14. http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/fuelcell.shtml http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/fuelcell.shtml

  15. Future • Honda FCX Clarity • Emits only water vapor • Propelled by electricity • Generated by hydrogen fuel • http://automobiles.honda.com/fcx-clarity/ • BMW 7 Series Large Sedan • Currently in trials of a new 6.0 Liter V12 gasoline hydrogen powered model of the 7 series

  16. Future ftp://ftp.jrc.es/pub/EURdoc/eur20681en.pdf

  17. FAQs • How large would fuel cells be in homes? • 5kW, size of a washing machine • When will we see common usage of FCVs? • Many manufacturers are set to commercially develop fuel cell vehicles in 2015 • Who are the world leaders in fuel cell research? • The US, Japan, and Germany are ahead in worldwide fuel cell infrastructure and development • What type of infrastructure is necessary for FCVs? • California: 68 stations statewide needed for hydrogen refueling

  18. Works Cited • http://www.hydrogen.energy.gov/annual_progress12_fuelcells.html • http://americanhistory.si.edu/fuelcells/intro.htm • http://www.engsoc.org/~bbarnes/temp/societal_impacts_fuel_cell.pdf • http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/fuel-cell-profile/ • http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/fcv_PEM.shtml • http://www.fuelcelltoday.com/about-fuel-cells/history • http://www.altenergy.org/renewables/fuel_cells.html • http://www.nfcrc.uci.edu/2/FUEL_CELL_INFORMATION/FCexplained/challenges.aspx • http://www.nfcrc.uci.edu/2/FUEL_CELL_INFORMATION/FCexplained/migpath.aspx • http://automobiles.honda.com/fcx-clarity/ • http://www.green-technology.org/green_technology_magazine/index.php?cID=134 • http://climate.nasa.gov/effects