MORAL EMOTIONS. Moral emotions are morally charged emotional reactions to certain events, experiences or actions. Some are positive, as when we admire, noble behavior in others; while others are negative, as when we find ourselves disgusted or outraged at another’s actions.
Moral emotions are morally charged emotional reactions to certain events, experiences or actions. Some are positive, as when we admire, noble behavior in others; while others are negative, as when we find ourselves disgusted or outraged at another’s actions.
MORALEMOTIONS GUILT REMORSE SHAME REGRET ADMIRATION DISGUST SYMPATHY MORAL OUTRAGE
Guilt has some of the following characteristics: It is a feeling of anxiety that results when you do something you shouldn’t, or fail to do something you should have.
Guilt has some of the following characteristics: Usually guilt is internally generated-- even when no one else knows you’ve done something wrong, you can still feel guilty about it.
Guilt has some of the following characteristics: Usually you do not feel guilty about an action unless you genuinely believe that it was the wrong thing to do.
Guilt has some of the following characteristics: Usually guilt is directed towards others. It results from some harm you’ve done another. Parents may feel guilty for not paying enough attention to their children. A friend may feel guilty for forgetting another friend’s birthday.
Guilt has some of the following characteristics: To relieve the feeling of guilt, one often has to confess the act to the person harmed, and then seek his or her forgiveness.
Guilt can be more formally defined in the following way: • A SELF-GENERATED FEELING OF ANXIETY RESULTING FROM THE VIOLATION OF AN INTERNALIZED NORM THAT HAS CAUSED • HARM TO OTHERS.
Some characteristics of SHAME: Shame is also a feeling of anxiety. Usually, shame is generated by a person’s sense that others disapprove or would disapprove of her action. This usually happens in the presense of others, but a person can feel shamed simply by imagining such disapproval.
Some characteristics of SHAME: As with most moral feelings, a person has to believe--or at least come to understand--that what he has done is wrong before he can feel shame.
Some characteristics of SHAME: Usually, shame is directed towards a failing or inadequacy in oneself. For example, one might be ashamed that you showed cowardice in front of one’s peers.
To fix shame, usually one must prove oneself to the persons whom you have failed. Thus, a cowardly act requires a brave one in order to to demonstrate to others that you are not a coward.
Given these characteristics, SHAME can be more formally defined as: • A GROUP-GENERATED FEELING OF ANXIETY DIRECTED TOWARD ONE’S FAILINGS IN COMPARISON TO AN INTERNALIZED NORM.
SYMPATHY • A FEELING OF DISTRESS OVER THE • SUFFERING OF OTHERS. Moral Outrage A feeling of anger directed toward a person who has caused harm to an innocent person.
REMORSE: • REMORSE IS A FEELING OF SADNESS • OCCASIONED BY DOING SOMETHING • MORALLY IMPRDUENT THAT RESULTS • IN HARM TO OTHERS. REGRET: A FEELING OF SADNESS OCCASIONED BY HAVING DONE SOMETHING IMPRUDENT WHICH RESULTED IN HARM TO OURSELVES.
A judge will often look for signs of remorse in listening to the final statement of a convicted defendant before sentencing. Remorse is an indication that the person understands that she has done wrong, and she is truly sorry for the harm she has done her victim Remorse indicates the possibility of reform in the person.
On the other hand, a person who simply regrets his actions, usually indicate that he is sorry for himself-- for being caught, for going to prison, and may mouth sorrow for having harmed others.
MORAL EMOTIONS • ADMIRATION: • A POSITIVE FEELING TOWARD THE • ACTIONS OR CHARACTER OF ANOTHER. DISGUST: A FEELING OF REVULSION TOWARD THE BEHAVIOR OR CHARACTER OF ANOTHER.
SYMPATHY SYMPATHY SYMPATHY SYMPATHY SYMPATHY
Sympathy is considered by many philosophers and psychologists to be one of the most important of the moral emotions.
Sympathy should be contrasted with empathy: • EMPATHY: • THE ABILITY TO READ AND UNDERSTAND THE EMOTIONS OF OTHERS. • SYMPATHY • A FEELING OF DISTRESS OVER THE • SUFFERING OF OTHERS.
Sympathy presupposes empathy, but empathy doesn’t necessary entail sympathy. To be sympathetic, one must be able to read and understand the emotions and feelings of others. But it is quite possible to understand that another is suffering, yet not feel any sympathy for him.
EMPATHY: • THE ABILITY TO READ AND • UNDERSTAND THE FEELINGS • OF OTHERS Pathologies of Empathy: Autistics often have difficulty reading the facial expressions and emotions of others. Alexithymics often have difficulty understanding their own emotions.
VARIETIES OF SYMPATHY: SYMPATHY COMPASSION PITY SCHADENFREUDE LOVE:PARENTAL FRIENDSHIP ROMANTIC
SYMPATHY: • A DISTRESSFUL REACTION TO THE TYPE OF • SUFFERING A PERSON IS UNDERGOING, • DESPITE LACK OF PERSONAL RELATION • TO THE VICTIM • THE FEELING IS BASED ON ANALOGY: • ONE IMAGINATIVELY PROJECTS ONESELF • INTO THE SITUATION OF THE VICTIM. • IN SYMPATHY THERE IS OFTEN A • FEELING OF BOTH HORROR AND RELIEF.
COMPASSION: • A FEELING OF DISTRESS THAT • RESULTS FROM THE DIRECT • ENGAGEMENT WITH THE • SUFFERING OF ANOTHER
PITY: • A FEELING OF DISTRESS OVER THE • SUFFERING OF ANOTHER WHICH IS • ACCOMPANIED BY AN IMPRESSION • THAT THE VICTIM IS SOMEHOW • INFERIOR TO US. • SCHADENFREUDE: • A FEELING OF DISTRESS MIXED WITH AN • ENJOYMENT OVER THE SUFFERING OF • ANOTHER
LOVE • AN INTENSE EMOTIONAL BOND • WITH ANOTHER SUCH THAT THE • SUFFERINGOF ONE BECOMES A • SOURCE OF SUFFERING IN THE • OTHER.
Psychopathy Sociopathy and Wickedness
Psychopathy and sociopathy illustrate the importance of moral emotions for a person’s overall moral competence. With the absence of moral emotions, a person can be heartless, conscienceless, and capable of extreme cruelty.
Some research suggests that Psychopathy may be a congenital condition, in which a child is unable to develop strong attachments, and has a high threshold for anxiety and fear.
For these various reasons, it is difficult to socialize the psychopath. Since they have high thresholds for fear and anxiety, they are not easily threatened or intimidated by physical punishment. Since they have difficulty forming attachments, they are not eager to please, nor worried what others may think of them.
Some psychologists think that sociopathy is acquired in the context of environmental circumstances. To the extent that children are subjected to abuse or a violent environment, they may develop high thresholds for fear and anxiety. Those thresholds make them capable of cruelty.
Sociopaths may lose any sense of caring—either for others or for themselves. Loss of the sense of care makes people dangerous, and capable of heinous acts.
MORAL EMOTIONS such as guilt or shameare reactions to certain events and actions. MORAL SENTIMENTS, such as duty or honor, are a higher order disposition of emotion. Moral sentiments are generally more enduring feelings which incline us TOWARD THE GOOD.
Moral Sentiment gets expressed in a number of ways. Some of the more usual moral sentiments include: DUTY HONOR CARING NOBILITY
Which type of moral sentiment a person acquires may depend on his or her socialization. It’s quite possible for a person to have all four types of sentiment, although usually one predominates in a person.
MORAL SENTIMENT DUTY G U I L T S H A M E HONOR S Y M P A T H Y SOCIALIZATION CARING A D M I R A T I O N NOBILITY
DUTY A feeling to do something in the absence of a feeling to do it. The feeling that is one is obligated to do or to refrain from doing something to others relative to a particular role. More formally, it is defined as a feeling of obligation, relative to a role, to do or to refrain from doing something to others.
The emphasis in duty is usually what we owe others—although we can have duties to self. failure at one’s duty generally generates a feeling of guilt in a person. alleviating guilt often requires redress to the person harmed .
Usually duties are associated with certain roles we play. We have duties as parents, friends, spouses, employees, professionals, and as citizens.
As a person matures and acquires experience in these roles, they learn what is expected of them. Usually there is a consensus about the basic duties of a role. For example, most everyone agrees that the duty of a parent is to feed, shelter, and care for infants. There might be more disagreement about other duties, for example, whether to provide a college education for your child.
Some philosophers also claim there are PRIMA FACIE duties. These are duties that cut across roles and practices. They are what you owe others no matter what your role. For example: not to harm, to tell the truth, to keep promises.
The Scout Oath or Promise ON MY HONOR I will do my best: TO DO MY DUTY to God and my country, and to obey the Scout Law; to help other people at all times; to keep myself physically strong, mentally awake, and morally straight. THE SCOUT LAW A scout is: trustworthy loyal helpful friendly Courteous kind obedient cheerful Thrifty brave clean reverent
The scout oath shows the difference between duty and honor. Duties are the obligations you have as a member of the boy scouts. Honor is something expressed in your pledge to perform these duties.
SENSE OF HONOR: • AN EMPHATIC FEELING THAT A • MORAL PERSON IS ONE WHO • DOES NOT ENGAGE IN • CERTAIN KINDS OF ACTS.