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Chapter 16. The South and the Slavery Controversy. Southern Social Ranking. (1)White slave owners: ¼ of white population Owned 3-4 slaves (family) (2) Whites who DID NOT own slaves : ¾ of white population - dreams of Southern riches (poor white trash / clay eaters)

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chapter 16

Chapter 16

The South and the Slavery Controversy

southern social ranking
Southern Social Ranking

(1)White slave owners: ¼ of white population

  • Owned 3-4 slaves (family)

(2) Whites who DID NOT own slaves : ¾ of white population

- dreams of Southern riches (poor white trash / clay eaters)

(3) Mountain Whites – lived in the mountains (hillbillies)

- hated the wealthy slave owners (ran the state) and had NO NEED for slaves in the Mountains

*West Virginia broke away from Virginia for this matter – anti-slavery issues and volunteered to fight for the Union during the Civil War

(4) Free African Americans (1860 – 250,000 A.A.)

- white reactions: hatred! (could pose the end of slavery)

- Irish reactions: hatred! (competition for low paying jobs)


(a) freed on slave owner’s will (religious or lack of need)

(b) buy yourself out of slavery

(5) Slaves (1860 – 4 million Southern slaves)

*Cotton Belt (arc-swooping crescent from Virginia to Texas)

uncle tom s cabin 1852
Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852)
  • Northern would sell African American slaves “down the river”
  • *Written by “Harriet Beecher Stowe” (abolitionist)
  • - stirred up STRONG reactions from the North and South
  • Underlying point of book: slavery is not just a political contest, but also a great MORAL struggle!
  • Book attacked the South

“So, you are the little lady that started this war”

- Abraham Lincoln regarding

Harriet Beecher Stowe on Civil War

nat turner s rebellion
Nat Turner’s Rebellion
  • Considered the

“most successful” slave rebellion

  • Followed “DAVID WALKER’S ideas”
  • Nat Turner –a preacher born into slavery in 1800 in Virginia
  • Saw an eclipse in the sky (divine message) to free slaves
  • Attacked 4 plantations with 80 followers (killed 60 white people)
  • Nat Turner – hid, found, tried, hanged


- tighten up on “slave codes” and security

denmark vesey revolution
Denmark Vesey Revolution
  • Inspired by Haitian Revolt in 1790
  • Vesey (preacher) and his followers planned to sail to Haiti to escape retaliation.
  • Two slaves opposed to Vesey's scheme leaked the plot.
  • Charleston authorities charged 131 men with conspiracy.
  • In total, 67 men were convicted and 35 hanged, including Denmark Vesey (1822)
early abolition movement
Early Abolition Movement
  • The American Colonization Society started with the goal of moving blacks back to Africa.
  • Note:
    • Goal: Liberia on the West Africa coast.
    • It failed because
    • most blacks considered themselves African-Americans, not Africans
    • Finances

WOMEN IN THE ABOLITIONIST MOVEMENT: got involved because it could easily lend itself to Women’s rights

Theodore Weld’s American Slavery As It Is


sojourner truth
Sojourner Truth
  • traveled throughout the country

speaking of abolition

- spoke of women’s rights at conventions

- “Ain’t I a Woman”

    • Very famous speech that

granted applause from men

underground railroad
Underground Railroad
  • Secret network of

people that helped

escaped slaves into

the North!!! (CANADA)

Harriet Tubman

  • David Walker

*Published the

“Appeal” to the Colored Citizens of the World - literature passed around the South

    • Spoke of “standing up and fighting

for your freedom as a slave”

(Don’t wait on emancipation….

FIGHT for it)

(D.W. = Don’t walk…RUN!)

slavery and abolition
Slavery and Abolition
  • Abolition = a call to outlaw slavery in America,

****** William Lloyd Garrison ******


Goal: an immediate “emancipation / abolition”

of slavery with no payment to the slaver owner!

    • Started his own newspaper called

****The Liberator*** – spoke of ways

to end slavery-

(most famous abolitionist paper)


Also founded the

“American Anti-Slavery Society”

frederick douglass
Frederick Douglass
  • An escaped slave that supported Garrison and The Liberator
  • Lecturer or Orator at the American Anti-Slavery Society conventions.
  • Wrote his own newspaper:

******The North Star******

slave owners defend slavery
Slave Owners DEFEND Slavery

(1) Slave Owners encouraged Religion (conversion and dedication to a relationship with God)

(2) Myth of a “happy” slave / happy addition to the plantation family / food /shelter…etc.

(3) Abolitionists would SWAMP Congress with anti-slavery petitions and Southern representatives countered by securing a “GAG RULE” – a rule limiting the reading of an issue in Congress – repealed years later

(4) Southern economy is kept up


Read p. 367-368 to analyze the reaction and impact of the abolitionist movement in the North and the South

Format: T Chart (bullets)