CARDIORESPIRATORY ENDURANCE. Chapter 3. Cardiorespiratory Endurance. The ability of the body to perform prolonged, large muscle, dynamic exercise at moderate-to-high levels of intensity. This is the most important health related component of physical fitness.
~ A very muscular organ
~ Four chambered, fist-sized muscle.
~ Weighs between 8 and 10 oz.
~ Lies slightly to the left of center in the chest.
~ Each day, will beat 100,000 times (at rest).
~ Purpose is to pump oxygen-poor blood
to the lungs, and oxygen-rich blood
to the rest of the body.
~ At rest, about 5 qts. of blood are
circulated each minute.
~ With exercise about 20 or more
qts. of blood are pumped out
Rest 50-90 bpm
Exercise Up to 170-210 bpm
Rest 12-20 breathes per minute
Exercise 40-60 breathes per minute
Blood Pressure (Systole=Contraction Diastole=Relaxation)
Cardiac Output (SV x HR)
Rest 5 quarts/min.
Exercise 20 or more quarts/min.
More Active → More Energy
~The body converts chemical energy from carbohydrates, fats, protein into substances that cells can use as fuel (ATP).
~ ATP is the primary energy source for biological work.
~ These fuels can be used immediately or stored.
~ ATP must be restored at the same rate it is being used.
~ There are 3 major energy systems the body uses to produce ATP
*Increase in HR, since higher demand for oxygen.
*Increase in BP, as a result of ↑ blood flow.
*Increase in supply, delivery, and use of oxygen by muscle.
*Increase in body temperature.
*Increase in certain hormones, especially epinephrine which stimulates a rise in all body functions.
*Increase in metabolism.
Long-term (Training) Effects
*Heart function and the ability to carry oxygen to the body is improved with endurance exercise.
*Capacity of cells to take up and use oxygen improves.
*Increased size of the heart: the walls become thicker and stronger, allowing for greater efficiency.
*Increased blood volume, (the amount of plasma) therefore, more blood is pushed into circulation with each contraction.
*Increased stroke volume – the amount of blood pumped with each contraction.
*Improved cardiac output (SV x HR): the amount of blood pumped per minute.
*Decreased resting pulse rate: as stroke volume increases, the body’s need for blood will be met with less beats per minute.
*Decreased exercise pulse rate, heart operates more efficiently, with longer periods of rest.
*Faster resting pulse rate recovery after exercise.
*Reduced resting BP with endurance training.
*Increased blood flow to the skin and sweating to release heat.
*Decrease in the amount of body fat.
*Increased size of muscle fibers.
*Increased muscle strength and endurance.
*Improved respiratory responses – depth of each breath increases, muscles that support breathing improve, better efficiency of system.
HEALTH-RELATED BENEFITS – Include a reduced risk of certain diseases through moderate activity, but can occur without any significant change in an individual’s functional capacity or physical fitness.
FITNESS-RELATED BENEFITS-require a higher level of activity. These benefits are related more to performance levels in sport and higher levels of lifestyle activities. When fitness-related benefits are achieved, health-related benefits also occur.
-Body chemistry is influenced by endurance exercise and results in a better regulated energy balance.
-Exercise burns calories directly and continues to do so by raising resting metabolic rate for several hours following exercise.
-Increased proportion of lean body mass.
-Exercise can be either positive or negative on the immune system. It depends on the amount of exercise. Moderate exercise enhances immune function, while overtraining depresses the immune system.
-Diet, stress management and sleep will also play a role in immune function.
*You can use your CRE assessment results to set a specific VO2 goal and improve your fitness category.
*The amount of improvement depends on age, health status, and initial fitness level.
*Another type of goal can be a time or distance goals.
*Achieve the Surgeon General’s goal of 30 minutes/day, expending at least 150 calories.
-To determine intensity follow one of these methods:
A. Percentage of Max Heart Rate
B. Percentage of Heart Rate Reserve
C. Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE)
Maximum Heart Rate: 220 – age = _________bpm
55% intensity = MHR x .55 = ___________bpm
90% intensity = MHR x .90 = ___________bpm
Target heart rate range = _______bpm to ________bpm
220 – 20 = 200 bpm
200 x .55 = 110 bpm
200 x .90 = 180 bpm
Target heart rate range = 110-180 bpm
Step 1: Maximum Heart Rate: (Male ) 220 – age = _________bpm
(Female) 226 – age = _________bpm
Step 2: Find HR Reserve: MHR – Resting HR = HRR
Step 3: Find % of HR reserve (50% - 85%)
HRR x .50 = _______bpm (low end)
HRR x .85 = _______bpm (high end)
Step 4: Find target HR range
Target HR range = % of HRR + resting HR
~ Time (Duration)– The length of time depends upon the intensity.
Lower Intensity → More time (45-60 Min.)
Higher Intensity → Less time (20 min.)
ACSM recommends 20 – 60 minutes of continuous aerobic activity. If intermittent activity is incorporated, a minimum of three 10-minute bouts should be accumulated over the day.
Longer duration, low-to-moderate intensity activities usually result in more gradual gains in max oxygen consumption.
~ Type – Cardio-respiratory endurance exercises include activities that involve the rhythmic use of large muscle groups for an extended period of time.
Examples: Jogging, walking, cycling, kickboxing, swimming, skiing
Source: National Weather Service
Heat is appropriate for most injuries after 72 hours or after all the swelling is gone.