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Cardiorespiratory Endurance Chapter 2

Cardiorespiratory Endurance Chapter 2. Kinesiology 2115. Cardiorespiratory Endurance (also called cardiovascular endurance). Describes our energy output Most important component of physical fitness for longevity

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Cardiorespiratory Endurance Chapter 2

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  1. Cardiorespiratory EnduranceChapter 2 Kinesiology 2115

  2. Cardiorespiratory Endurance(also called cardiovascular endurance) • Describes our energy output • Most important component of physical fitness for longevity • Cardiorespiratory endurance is the ability to supply oxygen to working muscles over a period of time

  3. Function of the CR System • Four components of the CR System • Heart, blood vessels, blood and lungs • Purpose • Take in and deliver oxygenated blood to the cells of the body • Remove deoxygenated blood and other waste products from the body • Which side of the heart pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs? • ________ atrium and ventricle • Which side pumps oxygenated blood to the body? • _______ atrium and ventricle

  4. Regulation of the CR System • Cardiac Output: the volume of blood pumped per minute • Average adult volume? • Stroke Volume: amount of blood pumped per beat • CO = dec HR X inc SV • When the body exercises, how much blood is pumped per minute? • With improved fitness, cardiac output will increase stroke volume and consequently decrease heart rate • There is a maximum heart rate! • HR max = 220 - age

  5. Regulation (Continued) • Maximum cardiac output is effected by maximum Heart rate • HR max decreases with age • What happens to COmax with age? • Blood Pressure is also a factor • Blood pressure: the force of blood against vessel walls • Arterial (contraction) pressure is the systolic pressure • Pressure when the heart relaxes (between beats) is the diastolic pressure • Normal BP? • Borderline hypertensive?

  6. Energy Systems • Metabolism • ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) • ATP-PC system 1- 10 seconds • Anaerobic system 10 seconds-3 minutes • Aerobic system >3 minutes • Most activities combine anaerobic and aerobic systems • Maximal Oxygen Consumption (VO2 max) • Ability to utilize oxygen while working and removing CO2

  7. Energy Systems (Continued) • VO2 max is one of the best measures of cardiorespiratory endurance • The higher your VO2 max, the more you can delay fatigue-oxygen debt • (This means you’re more fit) • You can recover from oxygen debt more quickly • Can be measured in the lab or a field test (examples of lab test: treadmill or stationary bike)

  8. Testing VO2 Max

  9. Physiological Benefits of CR Endurance • Greater CO: more blood, faster • Longevity • Improved VO2 max: produce more ATP • Lowered blood pressure • Reduced body fat, firm muscles • Increased metabolism, remains elevated after exercise • Increase HDL cholesterol, lower LDL • Less bone mineral loss • Curbing of appetite

  10. Acute Increased metabolism Increase CO Systolic blood pressure Ventilation (respiratory rate) Muscle hypertrophy resulting in the slowing of digestion All return to normal quickly after exercise ends Chronic Increased metabolism due to increase in lean muscle mass Lower resting HR Increased SV Increased cellular activity Increased capillarization of muscle Improved oxygen utilization, muscle glycogen Must maintain over a lifespan or changes will revert back Acute/Chronic Changes with Aerobic (Cardio) Exercise

  11. Aerobic Exercise Plan Considerations • Precautions • Objectives • Assess current fitness level • Mode Selection • Safety Concerns • Staying Motivated

  12. Mode of Exercise • Warm-up • 5-10 minutes LIGHT cardio followed by LIGHT stretching • Activity Period • Overload principle • Intensity (how hard) • Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE) or • Target Heart Rate range • [(220-age) – RHR] x % intensity range + RHR • % intensity range dependant upon current health status • Duration (how long) • Frequency (how often) • Cool-down • LIGHT cardio and stretching

  13. Types of Aerobic Exercise High Aerobic Potential Aerobic dance Aerobic walking Bicycling Cross-Country skiing Hiking uphill Jogging Rope jumping Rowing Running Stair climbing Swimming Moderate Aerobic Potential Basketball Calisthenics Downhill skiing Field hockey Handball Racquetball Soccer Squash Tennis (singles) Low Aerobic Potential Archery Baseball Bowling Football Golf Softball Volleyball

  14. Implementing a Program • Evaluate initial fitness level • Schedule exercise as a part of your day • Find a variety of modes • Keep in target heart rate zone • Increase duration and frequency before intensity • Be aware of overtraining • Start between 500-2000 calories per week • You don’t want to lose more than 2 lbs per week • 3500 calories = 1 lb

  15. Benefit to Risk Ratio • Health Risks (Consult a physician) • Sudden illness, hidden heart problems • Stop exercising and contact MD if: • Pain in the chest, under sternum, or radiating to the arm; also, any other unexplained pain • Irregular pulse rate (flutters or rapid rate changes) • Palpitations in the chest or throat • Dizziness, lightheadedness, confusion or fainting Note: Anything out of the ordinary, even if you are in shape

  16. Other Health Considerations • Muscle soreness and injuries • Delayed onset muscle soreness is normal - 24-48 hours later • If it persists, the muscles have been worked too hard • Basic musculoskeletal injuries • Rest • Ice • Compression • Elevation • Most exercise injuries are caused by poor warm-up, mechanics, equipment, increasing intensity or duration too quickly

  17. Preventing Injuries • Warm-up thoroughly • Gradual progression • Listen to your body – RICE and ibuprofen • Avoid poor biomechanical situations • Running in one direction • Running on slanted roads, downhill • Poor shoes • Avoid hard surfaces • Substitute with lower impact exercises • Machines (elliptical, stationary bike), swimming, walking

  18. Heat Illnesses • Check temperature and humidity • Adjust duration and intensity • Exercise during cool times, in the shade and wear loose clothing • Drink before, during and after exercise • Replenish electrolytes (salt, potassium) • Sedentary, overweight, older at greater risk • Acclimatize

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