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887-894 Analyze political cartoons and statistics about the First World War. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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887-894 Analyze political cartoons and statistics about the First World War. Recognize the causes of “The Great War” (World War I). Directions:. Study the following two documents and write a short analysis of what they suggest about World War I:

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slide1

887-894

    • Analyze political cartoons
    • and statistics about the
    • First World War.
    • Recognize the causes
    • of “The Great War”
    • (World War I).
directions
Directions:
  • Study the following two documents and write a short analysis of what they suggest about World War I:
    • Political Cartoon: “Responsibility for War”
    • Table: “Balance of Power in 1914”
the great war wwi
“The Great War” (WWI)
  • By 1914, most of the nations of Europe believed that any war would be quick, short and would settle or “clear the air” of any disagreements between nations.
  • These expectations were completely incorrect!
  • The Great War (WWI) was so lengthy and destructive because:
    • All of the major European Powers were involved AND
    • It turned into an evenly matched stalemate early.
the great war wwi1
“The Great War” (WWI)
  • What were it’s ROOTS or causes?
    • Bismacrkian System of Military Alliances:
        • Chancellor Otto von Bismarck had two concerns about preserving the newly created (1871) Germany:
          • Protect Germany from an embittered France
          • Avoid being drawn into a war between Russia and the Ottoman Empire over control of the Balkans.
        • Solution was to create a system of military alliances:
          • Three Emperor’s League (1873)
            • Linked Austria-Hungary, Germany and Russia.
            • HOWEVER, at the Congress of Berlin (1878) he angered Russia by pushing for a fair territorial settlement that would maintain the balance of power.
            • Russia threatened armed action again, so….?
          • Bismarck makes a defensive alliance with Austria against Russia in 1879.
the great war wwi2
“The Great War” (WWI)
  • What were it’s ROOTS?
    • Bismarckian System of Military Alliances:
        • Solution was to create a system of military alliances:
          • Three Emperor’s League (1873)
          • Bismarck makes a defensive alliance with Austria against Russia in 1879.
          • Triple Alliance (1882)
            • Italy joins Germany and Austria due to tensions with France. (This later becomes the Central Powers).
          • Bismarck also maintained good relations with Britain and Italy.
          • Russian-German Reinsurance Treaty (1887) was signed after Russia dropped out of the Three Emperor’s League due to new tensions in the Balkans, which promised neutrality if either nation was attacked.
the great war wwi3
“The Great War” (WWI)
  • What were it’s ROOTS or causes?
    • Bismarckian System of Military Alliances:
        • In 1890, the young, inexperienced Emperor (Kaiser) William II took the throne:
          • He then FIRED Bismarck.
          • Refused to renew the Russian-German Reinsurance Treaty.
          • So, France (isolated until now), acted quickly to arrange a military alliance with Russia (Czar Alexander III) in 1894!
        • At this point, Britain’s foreign policy is crucial to the balance of power in Europe.
          • Relations between Germany and Britain breakdown.
            • Commercial rivalry in world markets.
            • Kaiser William II’s tactless public statements.
            • Germany’s expansion of their navy.
the great war wwi4
“The Great War” (WWI)
  • What were it’s ROOTS or causes?
    • Bismarckian System of Military Alliances:
        • The South African War (1899-1902) demonstrated to the British how overly extended they were in terms of their Imperial empire.
        • Consequently, Britain improved relations with the United States and Japan in 1902.
        • Also befriended France in 1904 by signing the Anglo-French Entente.
slide9

1. Military Alliances

Allied Powers:

Central Powers:

Nicholas II [Rus]

Wilhelm II [Ger]

George V [Br]

Victor Emmanuel II [It]

Enver Pasha[Turkey]

Pres. Poincare [Fr]

Franz Josef [A-H]

slide10

2. Militarism - Arms Race

Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.] in millions of £s.

slide12

4. Imperial Rivalries

German naval expansion threatened

Britain’s navy and their imperial empire.

slide14

The“Powder Keg”of Europe

The“Powder Keg”of Europe

The Outbreak of War in the Balkans:

  • Ottoman Empire was
  • weakening and Balkan
  • nationalism and Pan-
  • Slavism (independent
  • Slavic state) was grow-
  • ing.
    • Serbia led the way in the First Balkan War (1912) and again in 1913 in the Second Balkan War.
    • Assassination of Franz
    • Ferdinand while visiting
    • in Bosnia (Balkans) June
    • 28, 1914.
slide15

The Assassination:

GavriloPrincip

Archduke Franz

Ferdinand – heir

to A-H Throne!

slide16

The“Powder Keg”of Europe

The“Powder Keg”of Europe

The Outbreak of War in the Balkans:

  • Ottoman Empire was weakening and
  • Balkan nationalism and Pan-Slavism
  • (independent Slavic state) was growing.
    • Serbia led the way in the First Balkan War (1912) and again in 1913 in the Second Balkan War.
    • Assassination of Franz Ferdinand while
    • visiting in Bosnia (Balkans) June 28, 1914.
    • July 23, 1914 Austria gave Serbia an ultimatum to agree to demands in 48 hours.
    • July 28, 1914 Austria declared war on Serbia after receiving Germany’s full support or “blank check” as it was called.
    • This led to Czar Nicholas II to mobilize Russian troops to defend their Slavic brothers in the Balkans!
reaction 1914
Reaction? = 1914
  • Germany launches the “Schlieffen Plan”
    • Quick attack on
    • France through
    • neutral Belgium
    • before Russia has
    • time to mobilize
    • troops on in the east.
    • Germany wanted to
    • avoid a two-front war.