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History and Culture of the Hawaiian People. Allyx Smith & Taryn McGrew. Original Colonization of the Hawaiian Islands. Archaeological evidence dates back to as early as 300 CE Polynesian settlers from the Marquesas and possibly the Society Islands populated the islands between 300-500 CE

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original colonization of the hawaiian islands
Original Colonization of the Hawaiian Islands
  • Archaeological evidence dates back to as early as 300 CE
    • Polynesian settlers from the Marquesas and possibly the Society Islands populated the islands between 300-500 CE
  • A second wave of migration took place from Raiatea and Bora Bora in the 11th century.
  • The first recorded European contact:
    • 1778- British explorer James Cook
polynesian triangle
Polynesian Triangle
  • The Polynesian Triangle
    • Region of the Pacific Ocean
    • Three island groups at its corners:
      • Hawaii
      • Easter Island (Rapa Nui)
      • New Zealand
  • A large imaginary triangle in the Pacific Ocean, encompassing over 1,000 islands.
  • Polynesia ("many islands")
traditional culture
Traditional Culture
  • Ancient Hawaiians had a structured social order with kānāwai (strict regulations and a system of laws)
    • Kapu (sacred or forbidden).
  • The mō‘ī (king, queen) and his/her ‘aha kuhina (chiefs and advisers) constituted the highest class--mana (divine power).
  • Below them were the nobility, known as ali‘i.
  • Next in rank were the kāhuna,
    • priests as well as professionals with specific skills in particular fields.
  • Maka‘āinana
    • Common people- mostly farmers
  • Kauā/Kauwā
    • Outcasts
making a living
Making a Living
  • Agriculture was the biggest industry in Hawaii
    • Sugar, coconut, and pineapple formed the core of the plantation system.
  • Plantations were established in the 1820s and 1830s
    • Native Hawaiian men were employed as farm workers while Hawaiian women worked in the houses of white immigrants as maids and washer women.
  • Fishing
    • Took place both inshore and offshore.
    • Many fishing techniques were used, each demanding different equipment and procedures:
      • hand catching, snaring, spearing, basket trapping, netting, hook and line fishing, and poisoning.
hula dance
Hula Dance
  • Hula or Hawaiian dance, is as much a celebration of life as it is a proud statement of cultural identity.
  • According to legend, hula originated when Pele, the Hawaiian goddess of fire, commanded her younger sister Laka to dance.
  • Schools were begun in honor of the goddess of the dance and temples were dedicated to her.
  • Dancers lived on the temple grounds, subjected to strenuous training regimes and kapu (taboos) befitting the sacred art of hula.
hula con t
Hula (con’t)
  • Hula passes along the stories and legends of the culture to subsequent generations.
  • Hula kahiko:
    • ancient hula, uses dance and chanting to relate the proud and somber history, customs, ceremonies and traditions of ancient Hawaii and her people.
  • Hula auwana:
    • modern hula, is the dance form most people are familiar with, combining dance and music for a more playful, joyous and spirited recounting of contemporary life in the islands.
  • Missionaries who arrived in the islands in the 1820s thought the hula to be a little too suggestive and outlawed it as a pagan practice.
language
Language
  • Hawaiian:
    • language with the fewest letters in its alphabet
    • a, e, i, o, u, h, k, l, m, n, p, w — 12 in all
    • longer sounding vowels
      • marked with a bar or macron above the letter
        • Hawaiians call it a kahakö.
          • Changes the length of the vowels
  • For example:
    • kala is a type of fish
    • kalä means 'the sun,’
    • kälä means 'dollar' or 'money.’
  • English vowels can be lengthened in pronunciation
    • changes the emphasis but not the meaning of the word.
religion
Religion
  • Worship of all the powers of nature
  • There were four main gods:
    • Kane (god of life, fresh water, provider of sunshine)
    • Lono (god of rain, peace, agriculture, and the forest)
    • Ku (god of war and medicine)
    • Kanaloa (god of the ocean and ocean winds).
  • The Hawaiians believed that these gods took many forms.
  • Hundreds of lesser gods and goddesses.
    • Pele (goddess of volcanoes)
    • Lea (goddess of women and canoe builders)
    • Laka (goddess of the hula).
religion con t
Religion (con’t)
  • Aumakua:
    • Ancestral guardian spirits/family ancestors who became personal gods of their Ohana.
    • Prayed to for strength, guidance, and inspiration
    • Appeared as: sharks, lizards, birds, fish, stones, owl, or the eel.
  • Heiau:
    • Temples or places of worship
  • Religions of Hawaiian People Today:
    • Christians
    • Catholics
    • Buddhists
    • many others
captain james cook
Captain James Cook
  • Three Voyages- Thousands of Miles
    • Mapped lands from New Zealand to Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean in great detail.
    • 1778-landed on Kauai at Waimea Bay.
      • natives believed he was a god, a great chief with divine power.
captain cook con t
Captain Cook (con’t)
  • Cook was killed in a fight with Hawaiians during his third exploratory voyage in the Pacific in 1779.
    • The Hawaiians greeted Cook and his men by hurling rocks.
    • The captain and his men fired on the angry Hawaiians, but they were soon overwhelmed, and only a few managed to escape to safety.
    • Captain Cook was killed by the mob.
    • A few days later, the Englishmen retaliated by firing their cannons and muskets at the shore, killing more then 30 Hawaiians
the beginning of a kingdom
The Beginning of a Kingdom
  • Kamehameha I aka ‘The Great’
  • Full Name- Kalani Pai’ea Wohi o Kaleikui Kaeli’ikui Kamehameha o’ Lolani I Kaiwikapu Kaui Ka Liholiho Kunuiakea
  • Halley’s Comet 1758
  • Naha Stone
  • Kanawai Mamalohoe- “Law of the Splintered Paddle”
unification
Unification
  • Colonial Alliances
    • Cook- weapons and advisors
  • Battles
    • Iao Valley- Maui
    • Nuuanu Pali- Oahu
    • Puukohola Heiau Fortress- Big Island- 1790
  • Kingdom of Hawaii- 1810
    • King Kaumualii- Kauai
monarchs of hawaii queen kaahumanu 1772 1832
Monarchs of Hawaii:Queen Kaahumanu (1772-1832)
  • Kuhina-nui for Kamehameha II
  • Regent for Kamehameha III
  • Leadership role in the overthrow of the Kapu system
    • With the collapse of the system, she as a woman could exercise political authority
kamehameha ii 1797 1824 liholiho
Kamehameha II (1797-1824)Liholiho
  • Split power with Kaahumanu
  • Broke Kapu
    • Ate with noble women in view of public
  • 1823- England
    • measles
kamehameha iii 1814 1854 kauikeaouli
Kamehameha III (1814-1854)Kauikeaouli
  • Last son of Kamehameha the Great to rule
  • Most difficult time in Hawaiian History
    • Increase in foreign residents
      • New problems in trade, credit, land titles, and plague
  • 29 year reign- longest of any Hawaiian monarch
kamehameha vi 1834 1863
Kamehameha VI (1834-1863)
  • First grandson of Kamehameha I to rule
  • Beginnings of tension over potential annexation by the U.S.
kamehameha v 1830 1872 lot
Kamehameha V (1830-1872)Lot
  • Last direct descendent of Kamehameha I to rule
  • Last King to rule in old Hawaiian style
  • Increased annexation anxiety
  • Racial troubles
william lunalilo 1835 1874
William Lunalilo (1835-1874)
  • Confirmed King in 1873
    • Informal popular vote by Hawaiian Legislature
  • Amended Constitution of 1864
    • Property rights no longer needed to vote
  • Attempted a reciprocity treaty with U.S.– too much protest
  • Died of tuberculosis after less than a year as ruler.
  • Left his home to the poor and the needy
david kalakaua 1836 1891
David Kalakaua (1836-1891)
  • Elected by Hawaiian Legislature in 1874
  • For the People
    • Filled administrative positions with Hawaiians
  • “Merry Monarch”
  • End of Reign
    • Cabinet overthrown
    • New constitution stripping power
    • Replaced
liliulokalani 1838 1917
Liliulokalani (1838-1917)
  • Regent prior to Kalakaua’s death
  • Rivalry between white businessmen and native politicians
  • Committee of Safety 1893
  • 1895 Revolt
princess kaiulani 1875 1899
Princess Kaiulani (1875-1899)
  • Heir to throne
    • Training equal to European monarchs to be
    • Traveled widely
    • Learned many languages
  • Hawaiian’s “Last Hope”
  • After annexation- defiant
  • Died of rheumatism of the heart- March 6, 1899
immigrants in hawaii in the 1900 s
Immigrants in Hawaii in the 1900’s
  • English
    • Cook
  • Chinese
    • 1852-1856- thousands
    • 1884- 18,254
  • Japanese-
    • 1890- 12,610
    • 1900- 61,111
    • 1924- Federal Exclusion Act
  • Portuguese
    • 1878-1887- 17,500
immigrants con t
Immigrants (con’t)
  • Koreans
    • 1903- SS Gaelic
    • 1911-1924- picture brides
  • Filipinos
    • 1907-1931- 120,000
  • Puerto Ricans
    • 1900- Ship Rio de Janeiro
    • 1950- 10,000
  • Samoans
    • 1919- Mormon Temple
    • 1952- 1000
    • 1970’s- 13,000
our 50 th state introducing business relationships
Our 50th State:Introducing Business Relationships
  • 1826- Hawaii U.S. Treaty
    • Opened trade relations
  • 1849- Treaty of Friendship, Commerce, and Navigation
    • Aimed for perpetual peace between the two nations
    • Furthered trade privileges
  • 1875- Treaty of Reciprocity
    • Free access to U.S. market
    • U.S. gained lands in Pu’u for Pearl Harbor Naval Base
    • Large American investments in Hawaiian sugar plantations
our 50 th state annexation
Our 50th State:Annexation
  • President Grover Cleveland
  • President William McKinley -1896
    • June 1897- annexation treaty agreed upon
    • 1898- treaty failed in the Senate – never ratified
  • Newlands Resolution
    • Joint resolution written by Congressman Francis G. Newlands
    • Approved July 4, 1898
    • Signed July 7, 1898
our 50 th state statehood
Our 50th State:Statehood
  • 1950’s- shift of political power in Hawaii
    • Plantation owners vs. Descendents of immigrated laborers
  • March 1959
    • Congress passes Hawaii Admission Act
    • President Eisenhower signed the Act into Law
  • Vote cast to Hawaiian People
  • Modernization
    • Construction
    • Tourism
    • State Programs
important post modern figures of hawaii duke kahanamoku
Important Post-Modern Figures of Hawaii: Duke Kahanamoku
  • Practiced all throughout youth
    • Studied top Australians
  • 1911- Organized Hui Nalu
    • Club of the Waves
  • Olympic Trials
    • March 1912
      • 13th- Chicago
        • 100 yard race
      • 15th- Pittsburgh
duke kahanamoku
Duke Kahanamoku
  • Five time Olympic medalist in swimming
  • Most famous name in surfing
  • Hollywood actor
  • Hero
    • 1925- Newport Beach Boating Tragedy
important figures don ho
Important FiguresDon Ho
    • Hawaiian and traditional pop musician and entertainer
  • Hawaiian, Chinese, Portuguese, Dutch, and German heritage
  • 1953- University of Hawaii
    • 1954- Joined U.S. Air Force
      • 1959- left as a First Lieutenant
don ho
Don Ho
  • One of Hawaii’s biggest entertainers for 40 years
  • 1960’s- Tiny Bubbles
  • 1970’s – TV projects
  • Don Ho Show
  • Died April 14, 2007
important figures israel kamakawiwo ole aka bruddah iz
Important Figures:Israel Kamakawiwo’ole aka Bruddah’ Iz
  • Born May 20, 1959
  • Hawaiian last name means “Fearless Eyed, Bold Face”
  • Ukelele
    • Performed as early as age 10
  • Facing the Future- 1993
  • Somewhere Over the Rainbow/ What a Wonderful World
recycling tradition a hawaiian case study adrienne l kaeppler
Recycling Tradition: A Hawaiian Case Study Adrienne L. Kaeppler
  • Beginning in the late 1960s and growing stronger during the past forty years, old forms of Hawaiian structured movement systems have resurfaced in Hawaii.
  • “Recycling traditions” for the Hawaiians is a main aspect of how they choreograph new styles of dances.
  • Dancing for Hawaiians is a ritual and a way of expressing religion.
  • Taking religious movements and transforming them into entertaining dances.
  • Hula is another structured form of movement which is considered a form of theater and entertainment.
  • Understanding Hawaiian dances is difficult for most. The dancers use movements that suggest a certain language using specific gestures.
the life of the land missionary geography in the hawaiian islands r d k herman
The Life of the Land: Missionary geography in the Hawaiian Islands R.D. K. Herman
  • Argument: Privatization of land in Hawaii due to missionary pressures
    • Benefited foreign investors
    • Native Hawaiians became a landless underclass
    • Missionaries both victims and perpetrators of the industrial-capitalist power shift
  • One Eye on the Land, One Eye on the Souls
  • Missionaries first educated westerners to reside and try to learn the native customs
    • Transitions from preachertradesmenscholaradvisor to the Crowngovernment figures and businessmen
the life of the land missionary geography in the hawaiian islands r d k herman1
The Life of the Land: Missionary geography in the Hawaiian Islands R.D. K. Herman
  • 1820’s-1850’s
    • Missionaries only people with access to printing press
    • Only Westerners with Hawaiian language ability
  • Missionaries torn between spirituality and ambition
    • “The people are making progress in civilization, increasing property” (MH 4/48:140)
    • “As civilization advances…. We find it more and difficult to keep an assembly together.”
conclusions
Conclusions
  • Regardless of the purpose of the missionaries, the change they brought about raised the material status of living of Hawaiians.
  • Purpose of the changes were for the benefit of the West
  • Political and economic greed combined with disease made foreign contact with Hawaii more of a taking relationship than a giving one.
  • This taking climaxed with the annexation of Hawaii.
literature cited
Literature Cited
  • Anissimov, Michael, and Bronwyn Harris. WiseGeek. Conjecture, 02 Nov. 2013. Web. 08 Apr. 2013.
  • "Captain Cook Killed in Hawaii." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 08 Apr. 2013.
  • De Mello, John. "IZ." The Official Site of Israel IZ Kamakawiwo`ole. Apple Mountain Company, n.d. Web.
  • "Don Ho." 2013. The Biography Channel website. http://www.biography.com/people/don-ho-271668.
  • "Duke Kahanamoku." Duke Kahanamoku, Official Web Site for The City and County of Honolulu. City and County of Honolulu, n.d. Web.
  • "HawaiiHistory.org - Hawaii History - Home." HawaiiHistory.org - Hawaii History - Home. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Apr. 2013.
  • "Hawaii's Languages | Polynesian Cultural Center." Hawaii's Languages | Polynesian Cultural Center. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Apr. 2013.
  • "Hawaii-United States Treaty - 1826." Hawaii-United States Treaty - 1826. N.p., n.d. Web.
  • "Hawaii-United States Treaty -1849." N.p., n.d. Web.
  • Herman, R.D. K. "The Life of the Land: Missionary Geography in the Hawaiian Islands." Missiology: An International Review XXXIX.1 (n.d.): 59-74. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials. Web.
  • "Immigrants." Hawaiian Roots: Genealogy for Hawaiians. N.p., n.d. Web.
  • Kaeppler, Adrienne L. Recycling Tradition: A Hawaiian Case Study. Dance Chronicle , Vol. 27, No. 3 (2004), pp. 293-311
  • "King Kamehameha 1 and His 4 Statues." Hawaii's Official Tourism Site. Hawaii Tourism Authority, n.d. Web.
  • "The Monarchy." Hawaiian Roots: Genealogy for Hawaiians. N.p., n.d. Web.
  • Pitzer, Pat. "Winds of Profound Change Swept over Hawai`i in the 1890s, Turbulent times That Altered the Islands' Future Forever." The Overthrow of the Monarchy. Spirit of Aloha, n.d. Web.
  • “William Charles Lunalilo." HawaiiHistory.org. Hawaii History, n.d. Web.
photos cited
Photos Cited
  • http://lunaticoutpost.com/Topic-The-Bermuda-Triangle-The-Polynesian-Triangle
  • http://stockphototops.blogspot.com/2012/08/hawaii-beach-stock-photos.html
  • takemoretrips.blogspot.com/2012/12/hawaii_13
  • www.travactours.com/tours/hawaii
  • hawaiiguide.com
  • http://www.zazzle.com/captain_james_cook_postcards-239468933722212894
  • http://www.biography.com/people/kamehameha-i-9359827
  • http://pacific-islander.blogspot.com/2007/05/we-will-remember-you.html
  • http://ukenewbie.blogspot.com/2011/11/what-pros-play-israel-kamakawiwoole.html
  • http://archives.starbulletin.com/1999/07/29/sports/story1.html
  • http://www.imdb.com/media/rm1511628032/tt0477500
  • http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Johnny_Weismuller_and_Duke_Kahanamoku_smiling.jpg
  • http://www.hawaiiforvisitors.com/monarchy/king-william-lunalilo.htm