Declarative Lesson Design K-2. Christina Marinelli RISE Educational Services. Most methods courses and texts about lesson design focus primarily on Procedural lessons (where students are asked to DO something at the end of the lesson).
RISE Educational Services
Most methods courses and texts about lesson design focus primarily on Procedural lessons (where students are asked to DO something at the end of the lesson).
Much less emphasis is placed on Declarative lessons (where the end goal for the lesson is that students KNOW something)
The terms “Modeling” and “Guided Practice” imply the learner is practicing a skill, which seems less applicable when learning a new set of facts or concepts.
For example, if the learning objective is “Name the letter D” or “List 3 facts about George Washington”… How does one model that?
A: Every subject area, though most are found in science/history.
Math: Describe the three digits of a three digit number as representing amounts of hundreds, tens and ones.
ELA: Name the letters and their sounds.
Language: Memorize three new sight words.
In every subject, the teacher brings an expertise developed by context that can help the learner narrow down what is truly essential to know about that new content.
Similarly, the teacher groups the information in his or her brain, knowingly or not, in a way that helps bring the information up as part of a whole, and not as disconnected facts.
When you were in school, what was one trick a teacher taught you to help you remember content?
Share with a partner.
Describe Modeling in declarative lessons
Emphasis on Concept
Choose Graphic Organizer
Plan Think Aloud
Choose Delivery Method
Choose Graphic Organizer
Plan Contextualized example
Plan Gradual Release
Plan Structured Academic talk
Plan CFU Methods
Plan how big of a chunk to present
Plan Structured Academic Talk
Plan CFU Methods
Or ways to keep your students from going into a “COMA”
Depth & complexity icons
Declarative vs. Non Declarative
Recent studies show that the cerebellum plays an important role in attention, long-term memory, spatial perception, impulse control, and the frontal lobe’s cognitive functions – these are the same areas that are stimulated during learning. Bower & Parsons 2003
“It seems the more we study the cerebellum, the more we realize that movement is inescapably linked to learning and memory”
Recognize and name uppercase and lowercase d
Big Idea: Three important facts about George Washington are he was the first president, he is called The Father of our Country, and he is on the one dollar bill.
Learning Objective:Explain major differences between books that tell stories and books that give information
Books that tell stories have characters, settings, and a beginning, middle, and end.
Books that give information have facts, charts, reasons, and diagrams.
Big Idea: There are 4 major landforms: mountain, valley, hill, and ocean.
Brain research tells us that we can forget 80-90% of what we learn within 24 hours
Sousa 2006, Jensen 2005
Therefore……. It is better to teach smaller chunks, and have learners practice independently, than to teach large objectives that cannot be reached.
That learners are successfully able to complete the task after modeling. It is during guided practice that learners begin to master the skill.
Verbal and Visual
Practice by Doing
Teach Others /
Immediate Use of Learning
Adapted from D.Sousa – 2006: p95
Learners aren’t practicing a skill. They are more fully engaging with the big idea.
This should include multiple methods of rehearsal including
Make sense of information
Elaborate on the details
Assign value and relevance
Instructional implications of the OWLS
DOK Level 1
Rote rehearsal simply allows students to acquire information. It doesn’t ensure they understand the information or can apply it to new situations.
If students are not explicitly taught how to practice elaborate rehearsal or how the expert thinks, they will resort to rote rehearsal.
Elaborate rehearsal is necessary in
order for students to answer higher
order questions that have them
apply their knowledge to new
If students only use rote rehearsal
to memorize important facts they
will do fine on a true-false or fill in
the blank test.
Questions for planning my Guided Practice:
How am I having my students rehearse?
What synthesis questions can I ask to provide opportunities for elaborate rehearsal?
Water can get into cracks in rocks and freeze. It pushes against the rock and widens the cracks until the rock breaks.
Motion: make waves with hands
Rocks can slide down hills and break into smaller rocks.
Motion: slide on your feet
Strong winds blow sand against rocks and wear them down into smaller rocks.
Motion: blow air out
Earthquakes cause rocks to rub against each other and break apart.
Motion: shake your body
Plants can grow inside cracks in rocks. As the roots grow bigger the rock will break apart.
Motion: move your fingers like roots growing
-top of plant
(picture of flowers)
-holds the flower
-middle part, looks like a straw
-attached to stem
-usually green, stretched to sun
(picture of leaves)
-under the ground
(picture of roots)
Head ,shoulders, knees, and toes song with plant parts.
You need to know who doesn’t know and what they don’t know- not what they think they know, or you assume they know.
Choral response or calling out is a very popular, very self-affirming….very dangerous way of:
When do I do the vocabulary?
What about the fun activities in science, social studies?
Can I incorporate movement, music, dance?
I like to have them pre-read the content….
What about scholarly discussion?