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3D Modeling Essentials. Introductio n To 3D Modeling. George Atanasov . Telerik Corporation. www.telerik.com. What is 3D Modeling?. 3D Modeling process Representing any 3 dimensional surface Automatic or Manual. What is 3D Model?. The product is called 3D model 3D model can be:

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3d modeling essentials

3D Modeling Essentials

Introduction To 3D Modeling

George Atanasov

Telerik Corporation


what is 3d modeling
What is 3D Modeling?
  • 3D Modeling process
    • Representing any 3 dimensional surface
      • Automatic or Manual
what is 3d model
What is 3D Model?
  • The product is called 3D model
  • 3D model can be:
    • Rendered to 2D image
    • Printed to realistic object with 3D printer
    • Used in 3D games with real-time rendering
splines nurbs
Splines & NURBS
  • Vector design is better for industrial goals
    • Hands of the Craftsman vs. CPU Lathe
polygon mesh objects
Polygon Mesh Objects
  • Polyhedral object
  • Best for games and physical simulations
polygon mesh objects1
Polygon Mesh Objects
  • Polygon mesh sub-object level
    • Vertex
    • Edge
    • Face
    • Polygon
mesh vs spline
Mesh vs. Spline
  • Why Mesh is better for game development?
    • More calculations == less FPS
    • Nowadays GPUs are designed to perform faster with VBOs (Vertex Buffer Objects)
    • Mesh objects can be easily represented in VBO
    • The absolute accuracy of the objects is not basic goal in the Games
    • In game developing the basic goal is to create the best possible representation of an object with the least possible resources
the 3d scene
The 3D Scene
  • Three dimensional coordinate system
    • Represents uniquely all the points in it by three parameters – values for each axis
    • Contain sub-coordinate systems
      • Each object has his own

local coordinate system

high poly modeling

High Poly Modeling

Explaining High-Poly Design

high poly modeling1
High Poly Modeling
  • We can understand the idea of high-poly modeling just by its name
  • The more triangles in the mesh, the more detailed the object is
  • Final renders are appropriate for
      • Commercials
      • Magazines
      • 3D Movies
low poly modeling

Low Poly Modeling

Explaining Low-Poly Design

low poly meshes
Low Poly Meshes
  • Low poly mesh is a mesh which has small amount of polygons
  • Commonly used in real-time applications
  • In theory polygons can have infinite number of sides, but in 3D graphics they are broken down into triangles
why low poly
Why Low Poly?
  • Why we need to create low-poly models when there is so many smooth modifiers?
  • In general the more triangles in a mesh the more
    • detailed the object is
    • computationally intensive it is to display
  • To decrease render time it is better to use low poly models
the polygon budget
The Polygon Budget
  • A combination of game engine and the computer being used defines the polygon budget
  • It is equal to the number of polygons which can appear in a scene and still be rendered with acceptable frame rate
  • It varies depending on the
    • speed of the render engine
    • the amount of polygons
    • The speed of the hardware
low poly as a relative term
Low Poly As a Relative Term
  • There is no defined threshold for a mesh to be low poly
  • This term is relative and its definition depends on other factors:
    • The time in when the meshes were designed and for what
    • The detail required in the final mesh
    • The shape and properties of the object
low poly future vs past
Low Poly – Future vs. Past
  • Super Mario 2 – 1996
    • In 1996 rendering an objects created by 240 polygons was a huge success
    • All the environment is created by textured extremely low polygon objects
  • Crysis 2 – 2011
    • At 2011 rendering objects created by 24 000 polygons is not a big deal
    • The environment is created by averagely resolute objects
  • Low poly objects do not always have to look bad
  • You can “lie” the viewer that the object has better resolution with techniques such as
    • Normal mapping
    • Bump mapping
    • Etc.


Smoothing techniques

  • There are many methods to create a smooth objects
    • Normal smoothing
    • Mesh smoothing
    • Etc.
  • It is important to understand how to use each one of them
  • You have to pick the best for your goals
normal smoothing
Normal Smoothing
  • Normal smoothing affects only the way that the light is reflected by the objects surface
  • That is better for games, because the triangle count stays the same
  • Ends of the object remain edgy
  • Performs better on dark colors
mesh smoothing
Mesh Smoothing
  • Mesh smoothing affects directly the geometry of the object
  • Can be used many times on the same objects
  • Iteration value
  • With each iteration increase, the resolution of the object increases by square


Understanding Lightning in 3D

why we need lightning
Why We Need Lightning?
  • Modeling the 3D object is just a little part of the whole design process
  • The light makes the object to look as 3D object
how the light works
How the Light Works?
  • For full realistic light simulation you would need a “NASA” computer
  • The lighting in 3D graphics is not exact representation of the real light
      • In most 3D engines the light appearance is decayed to separate effects independent of each other
abstract types of lights
Abstract Types Of Lights
  • The light is composed by several abstract components
    • Diffuse, Ambient, Specular, Emissive, Reflection, Refraction
  • Each light component can have its own color
  • It is important to understand how to deal with each type of them
  • And it is more than important to understand how the real light affects the objects
ambient light
Ambient Light
  • When sun ray hits an object it reflects from it
  • The ambient light is the emission of all light sources
  • The result is averagely brightening whole object
  • 3D object with only ambient light channel applied to it looks 2D
diffuse light
Diffuse Light
  • Diffuse light represents a directional light casted by a light source
  • It can be explained as a light from light bulb placed on specific location in the space
    • A diffuse light of red color, coming from the left of a black object defining its 3D shape
diffuse light1
Diffuse light
  • For more realistic result we can apply both diffuse and ambient light channels
  • The diffuse light represents a light from a light bulb and flashes the front side of the object
  • The ambient light brightens the entire object
specular light
Specular Light
  • The specular light channel represents the brightest area of the object (the highlight area)
  • The position and the amount of specular highlight is depends on
    • The viewers position
    • The angle between the viewer and the source
emissive light
Emissive Light
  • Emissive light works a little different than the previously explained before types of lights
  • It is responsible for the object material ability to absorb or reflect light
  • Below is the result of object emitting green light with red light source applied
  • The use of reflections helps to create more realistic objects
  • Remember... You would not see the reflection effect if you don’t have another objects to reflect
  • Reflection looks better on round objects
  • Do not overdo with the

reflection effect

  • Reflection mapping saves time
  • The refraction property defines how much light goes through the object
  • In simple language it controls the opacity of the object
    • Refraction color #000000 == full opacity
    • Refraction color #FFFFFF == full transparency


Texturing Essentials

  • Textures are just simple raster pictures
    • JPEG
    • PNG
    • TGA
    • GIF
    • TIFF
  • Widely used in 3D game modeling
why to use them
Why To Use Them?
  • If you are developing a car racing game you do not need to model all the details on the buildings behind
  • By texturing your object you can add a lot of details on the model without adding any more resolution to it
  • For example you can use a texture of window instead of modeling it
texturing methods
Texturing Methods
  • There are several ways to texturize an object
  • Which one is better depends on the object which is going to be texturized
  • In game developing process the basic texturing methods are
    • UVW Mapping
      • Tiling
    • UVW Unwrapping
what is tiled texture
What is Tiled Texture
  • Tiling is another trick which saves a lot of resources
  • To understand it, imagine that you have to represent the facade of a huge building by texturing
    • The idiotic way is to draw a huge texture with a lot and the same windows in it
    • The right way is to draw a texture with only one window on it and multiply it
texture optimization tricks
Texture Optimization Tricks
  • Creating details with textures instead of polygons saves render time
  • Do not flood your 3D scene with huge amount of textures
    • Do not use bigger textures than you need
    • Manage balance between quality and size
    • When it is possible use texture modulation
texture modulation
Texture Modulation
  • Useful for level editing (creating environment)
    • You want to model brown roof tile and the same ones, but in different colors
    • Use white (or bright) roof tile texture and modulate it with the color of its object
    • You can create many different looking models with the use of one and the same resource
use transparency
Use Transparency
  • OK… We have to create a metal fence
  • But how many polygons we need?
    • First way is to create it as a polygon mesh
      • 100 000 polygons for 1 meter wide fence ?!?
    • The trick to do that is to use a texture of metal fence with transparency at the empty spaces
      • 2 polygons and the result looks the same
uv w mapping
UV(W) Mapping
  • Projects a texture map to 3D object
  • Assigns pixels of the image on the polygons
  • Allows you to texturize more complex shapes
unwarp uvw
Unwarp UVW
  • A very useful technique for texturing game characters and other complex objects
tools software

Tools & Software

What Software To Use

define your goals
Define Your Goals
  • Your goals are ?
      • Making super cool 3D game models
      • Making very detailed models for commercials, magazine covers, movies, etc.
      • Making 3D models for an industrial goals
      • Level editing for games
      • You are learning
comers games
Comers & Games
  • Appropriate software
      • 3D Studio Max, Maya
      • Blender, Google SkatchUp
      • Cinema 4D
  • Inappropriate software
      • SolidWorks
      • AutoCAD, ArchiCAD
  • Appropriate software
      • SolidWorks
      • AutoCAD, Civil 3D
      • ArchiCAD
  • Inappropriate software
      • 3Ds Max, Maya
level editing
Level Editing
  • Appropriate software
      • Civil 3D
      • 3Ds Max
      • Blender
  • Inappropriate
      • SolidWorks, AutoCAD, ArchiCAD
      • 3Ds Max
      • Blender
3d modeling essentials1
3D Modeling Essentials