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Transitional words and phrases

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  1. Transitional words and phrases 轉折語氣

  2. Contents: • Common mistakes • Paragraph coherence • Transition signals • Briefing English / presentation skills

  3. Common confused words

  4. He considers me as his best friend. He considers me his best friend. • These workers are considered as a high-ranking group. These workers are considered a high-ranking group. • I consider him as clever. I consider him clever. • I consider activities such as jogging and weightlifting as unnatural. I consider activities such as jogging and weightlifting unnatural.

  5. Editor Emily Brewster responds: In all four cases, the sentences without as are more idiomatic. However, as the article at consider in Merriam-Webster's Concise Dictionary of English Usage states, "as constructions are perfectly idiomatic but are not as common in recent use as they have been in the past. Nonetheless, they are still in use and are standard." The versions “without as” sound more natural and current to my ears. • He considers me (to be) his best friend. • These workers are considered (to be) a high-ranking group. • I consider him clever. • I consider activities such as jogging and weightlifting unnatural. http://www.learnersdictionary.com/blog.php?action=ViewBlogArticle&ba_id=42 (Merriam-webster’s learner’s dictionary)

  6. Common mistakes

  7. proved rise reward belong in Find mistakes 1. The results approved that the strategy was successful. 2. The price will arise in April. 3. The government has offered an award of NT$500,000 to catch the escaped prisoner. 4. Those cups belong to the meeting room, not the coffee room. “arise” refers to physical movement, not incremental value. Thus, we use it with words such as “smoke, sun, fog, balloon, etc.” The cost of living has increased a lot in the past few years. The oil price just went up. “award” = money or a prize given following an official decision. “reward” = something given in exchange for good behavior or good work, etc., or an amount of money given to someone who helps the police.

  8. and check checked with clients play with The reason is that between… and / from… to The share price varies from 40.3 to 40.9. 5. The unemployment rate fluctuated between 5 to 5.5% last year. 6. Can you please check for these figures? I want to make sure they are correct. 7. I have already checked to the client. 8. Lawyers usually have wealthy consumers. 9. Don’t play the gun. 10. The reason is because they can no longer afford our service. Check… for something/someone Could you please check my answers for any mistakes? The police checked their bags for drugs. Consumer – any person buys products. It is used to refer to people in general. Client – someone buys services from a company or someone else. play + object: musical instruments, games, sports, and roles.

  9. Regarding for being late improve my English We do not use “ability” when talking about languages. improve He would do anything to advance his career. besides beside = next to = by my side “regarding to” is incorrect in English. Use only “regarding” as the connector. In regard to holidays, you will have six days off every three months. They still haven’t reached an agreement with regard to the transportation allowance. 11. Regarding to your proposal, we’d like to meet with you next Friday to discuss the costs. 12. We are sorry for late. Please accept our apology. 13. I want to improve my English ability. 14. I want to advance my English. 15. What other languages do you speak beside Chinese? 16. My supervisor was sitting besides me during the meeting. “Sorry for” + n / v-ing. late (adj.) We are sorry to be late. Sorry for the delay.

  10. low The guitar is cheap. in the near future = soon considering buying lower its costs discussed emphasize 17. The price of this guitar is quite cheap. 18. We plan to open a branch office in Shanghai in the coming future. 19. We are considering to buy new office furniture. 20. The company will cost down this year. 21. They discussed about the problem before visiting the client. 22. They emphasize on discipline too much. We plan to buy new office furniture. The company will reduce its costs. The company will keep its costs down. The company will bring its costs down. They talked about the problem before visiting the client. We need to put more emphasis on customer service. We need to emphasize our customer service. They stress quality over price.

  11. has existed fare two years ago happened hard work (n) hard-working people much / little attend / go to Use “exist” only in the active voice, even if the subject is not a person. 23. This problem has been existed with my computer ever since I bought it. 24. The bus fee is NT$15. 25. She left the company for two years. 26. An accident was happened yesterday. 27. We finished the project on time thanks to everybody’s hard working. 28. We need many more information about the new client. 29. Will you join the meeting today? for – to talk about a length of time. She worked at the company for five years. She left the company in 2001. Use “happen” only in the active voice, even if the subject is not a person.

  12. at In the meantime / meanwhile look forward to receiving mispronounced that word wrong / pronounced that word incorrectly. as the same as / similar to / like “in the same time” – is used in relation to equal periods of time The new printer can print three pages in the same time that the old one printed one. 30. We both arrived in the same time. 31. In the meanwhile, he has agreed to help us find another teacher. 32. We are lack of information to fight SARS. 33. I look forward to receive your reply. 34. I’m sorry. I said / made the wrong pronunciation. 35. This product is the same like the one you sold us last year. lack + something “to be lack of” – incorrect. This government has never had a lack of clever answers for our questions. There is no lack of good food here.

  13. In my opinion / I think , too / as well At first at “also” is never placed at the end of a sentence is English. I’d also like to come to the meeting. Also, the new system will help you organize your time better. 36. According to my opinion, the economy will recover by the end of next year. 37. I’d like to come to the meeting also. 38. At the beginning, i didn’t think she was going to come to the meeting. 39. We’ll pay you in the beginning of March. “at the beginning” – talking about a location. at the moment when sth starts. “at first” – talking about ideas that happened or started in the past. “in the beginning” = at first, originally Please put this sentence at the beginning of the paragraph. At first, I thought you were the new general manager. Initially, we wanted to set up the office on Washington Road.

  14. charged us replied to satisfactory eight pages in total difficult / tough How much do you charge for a haircut? They charged us NT$100 for the delivery. 40. They charged us for a 10% late fee. 41. They still haven’t replied our emails. 42. The report you submitted is not satisfied. 43. There are totally eight pages in this brochure. 44. It was uneasy for me to finish all this work in a day. I need to respond to a couple of letters and I’ll be done. The director is not satisfied with your report. Our performance is not satisfactory. During the war, the city was totally (completely) destroyed. A total of eighty people attended the workshop. uneasy = restless, anxious

  15. Paragraph Coherence • Coherence: how sentences hold together. • A coherent paragraph does more than simply lay down the facts -- it organizes them, creating a logical argument that makes sense from idea to idea. Coherent paragraphs have a beginning, a middle, and an end. Elements that contribute to coherence, such as transitional devices, linking pronouns, and repetition of key words, are discussed in the following sections.

  16. Four ways to achieve coherence: 1. Repeating key nouns (repetition of key words) 2. Using pronouns 3. Using transition signals 4. Applying logical order

  17. weak Although related by topic (housing shortage), each sentence makes its own separate point with no link to the sentences before or after. The result is a group of related yet separate ideas instead of one coherent paragraph. improved Each separate fact now flows into the next, creating a coherent whole. Example • Limited investment in the housing sector makes it practically impossible to allocate sufficient resources for urban dwellers' housing needs. A high rate of urban population growth has increased the country's needs for housing. A small group of city officials has laid out a new plan to combat the crisis. A solution to the housing-shortage problem is a vital policy issue here. The housing problem has grown in the last twenty years. • Limited investment in the housing sector makes it practically impossible to allocate sufficient resources for urban dwellers' housing needs. In fact, the problem has grown in the last twenty years. Because a high rate of urban population growth has increased the country's needs for housing, a solution to the housing-shortage problem is a vital policy issue here. A small group of city officials has laid out a new plan to combat the crisis.

  18. Repetition of key nouns (how many key nouns, pronouns are used?)

  19. Why is this paragraph less coherent?

  20. Use of consistent pronouns:Avoid change of person or change of number.(why is it inconsistent?)

  21. Transition signalsWhich paragraph is easier to understand?

  22. Transition signals

  23. Three types of Transition signals 1. Sentence Connectors (transition phrases & conjunctive adverbs) 2. Clause connectors (coordinating conjunctions & subordinating conjunctions) 3. Others

  24. 1. Sentence Connectors (transition phrases & conjunctive adverbs) Transition phrases: • Appear in the beginning, middle, or end of a sentence. • A coma is needed. Example: For example, the Baltic Sea (, for example) in Northern Europe is only one-fourth as saline as the Rea Sea in the Middle East (, for example).

  25. Conjunction Adverbs: Often used with a semicolon and a comma to join two independent clauses. Examples: In warm climate zones, water evaporates rapidly; therefore, its net profit declined. Some English words do not have exact equivalents in other languages; for example, there is no German word for the adjective fair, as in fair play.

  26. 2. Clause Connectors Coordinating conjunctions: used with a comma to join two independent clauses and to form a compound sentence. Examples: In a matriarchy, the mother is the head of the family, and all of the children belong to her clan. In warm climate zones, water evaporates, so the concentration of salt is greater.

  27. Yet and But: Yet and But an opposite idea is coming. Yet: preferred when the 2nd clause is an unexpected or surprising contrast to the 1st clause. But: preferred when the 2 clauses are direct oppositions. Yet is similar in meaning to nevertheless; but is similar to however. Examples: Thomas Edison dropped out of school at age 12,yet he became a famous inventor. I want to study art,but my parents want me to become an engineer.

  28. Subordinating conjunctions Used to introduce a dependent clause, which is joined to form a complex sentence. Position: use a comma if the DC comes before the IC; do not use a comma if the DC comes after the IC. Examples: Although the company’s sale increased last year, its net profit declined. The company’s net profit declined last year although its sales increased.

  29. 3. Others Indicating transition: additional (adj.); despite (prep.); examples (n.). Examples: An additional reason for the firm’s bankruptcy was the lack of competent management. Examples of vocabulary differences between British and American English include petrol/gasoline, windscreen/windshield, and lorry/truck. Despite increased sales, the company’s profit declined last quarter.

  30. Common Transition Signals

  31. Briefing EnglishPresentation Skills for Public Speaking簡報英文

  32. A presentation is a formal talk to one or more people that "presents" ideas or information in a clear, structured way. People are sometimes afraid of speaking in public, but if you follow a few simple rules, giving a presentation is actually very easy. 1. Preparation 2. Equipment 3. Delivery 4. Language 5. The Presentation

  33. PreparationPreparation is everything! All presentations have a common objective. People give presentations because they want to communicate in order to: ■ inform■ train■ persuade■ sell

  34. Objective • Audience • Venue • Method • Content • Structure • Notes • Rehearsal "Why am I making this presentation?" "Who am I making this presentation to?" “How much do they know already and what will they expect from you?” Time and length “How should I make this presentation?" "What should I say?" Most presentations are organized in three parts, followed by questions: beginning, middle, end Reading a text is boring! Practice makes perfect!

  35. 2. Equipment

  36. 3. Delivery • 'Delivery' refers to the way in which you actually deliver or perform or give your presentation. Delivery is a vital aspect of all presentations. (1) Nerves (2) Audience rapport (3) Body language (4) Cultural considerations (5) Voice quality (6) Visual aids Try to speak slowly and calmly. Build a warm and friendly relationship with your audience. Enthusiasm is contagious. Avoid any repetitive and irritating gestures. Avoid cultural misunderstanding. Vary your voice - speed, intonation, volume. Keep the information on each visual aid to a minimum.

  37. 4. Language (1) Simplicity and Clarity (2) Signposting • Use short words and short sentences. • Use active verbs instead of passive verbs. • Examples: (Which is easier to understand? Which is more immediate? ) • Toyota sold two million cars last year. • Two million cars were sold by Toyota last year. • Let your audience know where they are and the structure of your • presentation. • Make a list of useful expressions to signpost the various parts of • your presentation.

  38. Useful expression of signposting