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Types of S hips. Container ships. Types of ships - introduction. Two broad categories: 1. Cargo ships General cargo Break Bulk - cargo that may be affixed to a pallet. Palletised cargo facilitates the loading into the ship by crane or derrick.

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Types of s hips

Types of Ships

Container ships


Types of ships introduction
Types of ships - introduction

Two broad categories:

  • 1. Cargo ships

  • General cargo

  • Break Bulk - cargo that may be affixed to a

    pallet. Palletised cargo facilitates the loading into

    the ship by crane or derrick.

  • Neo-Bulk – a subcategory of general cargo,

    with the other subcategories of break-bulk cargo

    & containerised cargo.

  • Containerised

    ii. Bulk cargo

  • Dry bulk

  • Liquid bulk

  • 2. Passenger ships.


Types of s hips

Clinker- a loose, black deposit that can consist of coke, coal, slag, charcoal, or grit & other waste materials.

Slag - waste material produced when coal is dug from the earth, or a substance produced by mixing .

Coke - what is left after coal is heated & the gas and tar removed, which is burnt as a fuel.

Molasses - a thick dark brown liquid made from sugar plants used in cooking,

Gravel - small rounded stones, often mixed with sand.

Grit - small pieces of stone or sand.


Construction
Construction

  • The rear part of the ship includes 1. a deck superstructure with the navigating bridge

    & the means necessary for the propulsion of the ship: machinery & fuel tanks.

  • The front part of the ship includes the stem & store rooms (if any).

  • The central part includes the hold constructed in accordance with the type of cargo

    to be transported.

  • In conventional large transport ships (e.g. tankers, bulk carriers, container ships, LNG

    carriers) the construction is used wherein ballast is loaded in order to control the gravity & prevent problems related to a shallow draft.

    e.g. shallow draft causes problems:

  • the degree of hogging during navigation is large,

  • the ship is exposed to the impact of waves striking the ship bottom (so called

    slamming),

  • the propeller cannot be immersed fully, it emerges from the water → a decrease in

    the propulsion performance & an increase in the load fluctuation on the propeller & main

    engine (propeller racing),

  • the rudder cannot be submerged sufficiently → manoeuvrability worsens.

  • Loaded ballast lowers the draft.


Container ships
Container ships

  • Cargo loading / unloading used to be slow,

    standardised carrying box, or container at 20 feet long (the TEU = 20 foot equivalent unit) allowed for vessels to be designed to carry these standard sized boxes,

  • Consequently dockside equipment needed to be designed to lift, stack and store these specific shapes.

  • Initially, small vessels of up to 10,000 DWT, carried no more than a few hundred TEU.

  • Today's container ships are being built to take over 13,000 TEU (such as the Emma Maersk).

  • Even larger vessels (the "Malaccamax") are now being constructed → take up to 18,000 TEU.

  • The term "Malaccamax" refers to the depth, as the shallowest part of the Malacca Straits is 25 metres deep. This is the limiting factor for any vessel wishing to transit the Straits.


Construction of a container ship
Construction of a container ship

  • 1. bridge castle front

  • 2. deck containers

  • 3. foremast & mast top(pramčani jarbol)

  • 4. forecastle

  • 5. insulated containers in holds

  • 6. container refrigeration ducts(vod)

  • 7. double hull

  • 8. passageway(prolaz)


Types of s hips

Freight container

  • any article of equipment with an overall volume greater

    than 8m³ (rigid or collapsible) suitable for repeated use

    in the carriage of materials in bulk or package form and

    capable of transfer between one or more forms of transport,

  • built to the ISO requirements,

  • materials: mild steel, stainless steel-aluminium alloy, plywood,

    fibre-glass or combinations of these.


Types of s hips

Containers carried in:

  • holds - cellular structure of angle bars forming container guides that stow containers on top of another.

  • weather decks - containers are carefully secured to

    ensure that they will not shift.

  • Vertical stowage loading - hatchways are very large; accessibility of the hold is of the utmost importance.

  • large hatch openings;

  • no ‘tween decks;

  • no need for cargo handling gear, operate from well-equipped special terminals.


The common types of iso shipping containers
The common types of ISO shipping containers

  • 20' GP (standard type)

  • 40' GP (standard type)

  • 20' HC - 1 foot taller than a standard 20' GP)

  • 40' HC - 1 foot taller than a standard 40' GP

  • Open top container

    20 foot (20’) & 40 foot (40’)

  • GP general purpose

  • HC highcube

  • 20 feet (6.058m)

  • 40 feet (12.192m)

Fully enclosed with strong, rigid walls.

One of the walls adapted to create a door opening.


Types of s hips


Types of s hips

  • e.g.

    The 20 foot shipping container dimensions are categorised:

  • 20 foot external container sizes (imperial)

  • 20 foot internal container sizes (imperial)

The 20 foot intermodal container sizes:

  • 20 foot external container dimensions (metric)

  • 20 foot internal container dimensions (metric)


External internal dimensions imperial
External / Internal dimensions (imperial)

Standard External / Internal sizes (metric)


Types of s hips

Thermal container or reefer

(interior insulation on the doors,

roof, floor & walls)

Insulatedcontainer

Flat rack or platform container

No fixed walls or any load-carrying

structures, transport

& distribution of wood

or other heavy objects

Tank or dry bulk container

for food, liquid or sensitive freight


Standard container description
Standard container description

1.

5.

6.

4.

2.

3.

  • 1.top end transverse member (cross rail) (gornje poprečno rebro kontejnera)

  • 2. front wall panel(čeona stjenka)

  • 3. side wall panel(bočna stjenka)

  • 4. roof panel(ploha)

  • 5. door header

  • 6. end door(čeona vrata kontejnera)

  • 7. hinge(šarka)

  • 8. rod guide(motka)

  • 9. cam end guide(bregast)

  • cam end

  • 10. lever(poluga)

  • door gasket(brtva)

  • 11.bottom rear cross member

  • corner fitting(oprema)

  • 12. fork lift pockets(otvori za manipulaciju s viljuškarom)

  • 11a. bottom cross member(poprečna greda podnog okvira kontejnera)

  • 13. floor

  • 14. bottom side rail(bočni okvir)

  • 15. bottom end transverse member (bottom front cross) (poprečno rebro dna kontejnera)

  • 16. corner post(ugaona greda kontejnera)

  • 17. top side rail(gornja bočna ograda)

17.

7.

8.

16.

9.

15.

14.

10.

13.

12.

11a.

11.


Types of s hips

Container stowage plans

  • drawn up to assist in advance planning.

  • document the positioning of containers on board.

  • The stowage space of the container on board the ship is stated in numbers and is recorded in the shipping documents.

  • The bay-row-tier system follows a system of numerical coordinates relating to length, width and height.