management information systems n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Management Information Systems PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Management Information Systems

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 67

Management Information Systems - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 114 Views
  • Uploaded on

CLARK UNIVERSITY College of Professional and Continuing Education (COPACE). Management Information Systems. Lection 11 Decision support systems. Plan. Basic terms Comparison of DSS and MIS Perspectives of DSS and MIS. Basic terms.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

Management Information Systems


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
    Presentation Transcript
    1. CLARK UNIVERSITY College of Professional and Continuing Education (COPACE) Management Information Systems Lection 11 Decision support systems

    2. Plan • Basic terms • Comparison of DSS and MIS • Perspectives of DSS and MIS Stair R., Reynolds G. Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

    3. Basic terms • Good decision-making and problem-solving skills are the key to developing effective information and decision support systems • Define the stages of decision making • Discuss the importance of implementation and monitoring in problem solving

    4. Basic terms • The management information system (MIS) must provide the right information to the right person in the right format at the right time • Explain the uses of MISs and describe their inputs and outputs • Discuss information systems in the functional areas of business organizations

    5. Basic terms • Decision support systems (DSSs) are used when the problems are unstructured • List and discuss important characteristics of DSSs that give them the potential to be effective management support tools • Identify and describe the basic components of a DSS

    6. Basic terms • Specialized support systems, such as group support systems (GSSs) and executive support systems (ESSs), use the overall approach of a DSS in situations such as group and executive decision making • State the goals of a GSS and identify the characteristics that distinguish it from a DSS • Identify the fundamental uses of an ESS and list the characteristics of such a system

    7. Why Learn About Information and Decision Support Systems? • True potential of ISs is to help employees make more informed business decisions • These systems can cut costs, increase profits, uncover new opportunities • Examples • Transportation coordinator can find least expensive way to ship products • Loan manager can determine creditworthiness • Store managers can better maintain inventory

    8. Decision Making and Problem Solving • Every organization needs effective decision making • In most cases, strategic planning and overall goals of the organization set the course for decision making • Information systems can assist with strategic planning and problem solving

    9. Decision Making as a Component of Problem Solving • Decision-making phase: first part of problem-solving process • Intelligence stage: potential problems or opportunities are identified and defined • Design stage: alternative solutions to the problem are developed • Choice stage: requires selecting a course of action

    10. Decision Making as a Component of Problem Solving (continued) How Decision Making Relates to Problem Solving

    11. Decision Making as a Component of Problem Solving • Problem solving: goes beyond decision making to include implementation and monitoring stages • Implementation stage: a solution is put into effect • Monitoring stage: decision makers evaluate the implementation

    12. Programmed Versus Nonprogrammed Decisions • Programmed decision • Decision made using a rule, procedure, or quantitative method • Easy to computerize using traditional information systems • Nonprogrammed decision • Decision that deals with unusual or exceptional situations • Not easily quantifiable

    13. Optimization, Satisficing and Heuristic Approaches • Optimization model: find the best solution, usually the one that will best help the organization meet its goals • Satisficing model: find a good—but not necessarily the best—problem solution • Heuristics: commonly accepted guidelines or procedures that usually find a good solution

    14. Optimization, Satisficing and Heuristic Approaches Optimization Software

    15. Sense and Respond • Sense and Respond (SaR) approach • Determining problems or opportunities (sense) • Developing systems to solve the problems or take advantage of the opportunities (respond) • One way to implement SaR is through management information and decision support systems

    16. An Overview of Management Information Systems • Management information system (MIS) • Integrated collection of people, procedures, databases, and devices • Provides managers and decision makers with information to help achieve organizational goals • Can give the organization a competitive advantage • Providing the right information to the right people in the right format and at the right time

    17. Management Information Systems in Perspective • Management information system (MIS) (continued) • Provides managers with information that supports effective decision making and provides feedback on daily operations • Use of MISs spans all levels of management

    18. Management Information Systems in Perspective Sources of Managerial Information

    19. Inputs to a Management Information System • Internal data sources • TPSs and ERP systems and related databases • Data warehouses and data marts • Specific functional areas throughout the firm • External data sources • Customers, suppliers, competitors, and stockholders whose data is not already captured by the TPS • Internet • Extranets

    20. Outputs of a Management Information System An Executive Dashboard

    21. Outputs of a Management Information System • Scheduled report: produced periodically, or on schedule, such as daily, weekly, or monthly • Key-indicator report: summary of previous day’s critical activities • Demand report: developed to give certain information at someone’s request • Exception report: automatically produced when a situation is unusual or requires management action • Drill-down reports: provide increasingly detailed data about a situation

    22. Outputs of a Management Information System Reports Generated by an MIS

    23. Outputs of a Management Information System Guidelines for Developing MIS Reports

    24. Characteristics of a Management Information System • Provide reports with fixed and standard formats • Produce hard-copy and soft-copy reports • Use internal data stored in computer system • Allow users to develop custom reports • Require user requests for reports developed by systems personnel

    25. Functional Aspects of the MIS • Most organizations are structured along functional lines or areas • MIS can be divided along functional lines to produce reports tailored to individual functions

    26. Functional Aspects of the MIS An Organization’s MIS

    27. Financial Management Information Systems • Financial MIS: provides financial information to executives and others • Some financial MIS subsystems and outputs • Profit/loss and cost systems: profit and revenue centers • Auditing: internal and external • Uses and management of funds

    28. Financial Management Information Systems Overview of a Financial MIS

    29. Manufacturing Management Information Systems • Manufacturing MIS subsystems and outputs monitor and control the flow of materials, products, and services through the organization • Design and engineering: CAD systems • Master production scheduling and inventory control • Methods: EOQ, MRP, JIT • Process control • Techniques: CAM, CIM, FMS • Quality control and testing

    30. Manufacturing Management Information Systems Overview of a Manufacturing MIS

    31. Marketing Management Information Systems • Marketing MIS: supports managerial activities in product development, distribution, pricing decisions, and promotional effectiveness • Subsystems • Marketing research • Product development • Promotion and advertising • Product pricing • Sales analysis

    32. Marketing Management Information Systems Overview of a Marketing MIS

    33. Marketing Management Information Systems Reports Generated to Help Marketing Managers Make Good Decisions

    34. Human Resource Management Information Systems • Human resource MIS: concerned with activities related to employees and potential employees • Subsystems • Human resource planning • Personnel selection and recruiting • Training and skills inventory • Scheduling and job placement • Wage and salary administration • Outplacement

    35. Human Resource Management Information Systems Overview of a Human Resource MIS

    36. Other Management Information Systems • Accounting MIS: provides aggregate information on accounts payable, accounts receivable, payroll, and many other applications • Geographic information system (GIS): capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographic information

    37. An Overview of Decision Support Systems • DSS: organized collection of people, procedures, software, databases, and devices used to help make decisions that solve problems • Focus of a DSS is on decision-making effectiveness regarding unstructured or semistructured business problems • Used by managers at all levels

    38. Characteristics of a Decision Support System • Provide rapid access to information • Handle large amounts of data from different sources • Provide report and presentation flexibility • Offer both textual and graphical orientation • Support drill-down analysis

    39. Characteristics of a Decision Support System • Perform complex, sophisticated analysis and comparisons using advanced software packages • Support optimization, satisficing, and heuristic approaches • What-if analysis: making hypothetical changes to problem data and observing impact on results • Goal-seeking analysis: determining problem data required for a given result • Simulation: ability of the DSS to duplicate features of a real system

    40. Characteristics of a Decision Support System With a spreadsheet program, a manager can enter a goal, and the spreadsheet will determine the input needed to achieve the goal.

    41. Capabilities of a Decision Support System • Support problem-solving phases • Support different decision frequencies • Ad hoc DSS • Institutional DSS • Support different problem structures • Highly structured problems • Semistructured or unstructured problems • Support various decision-making levels

    42. Capabilities of a Decision Support System Decision-Making Level

    43. A Comparison of DSS and MIS Comparison of DSSs and MISs

    44. A Comparison of DSS and MIS Comparison of DSSs and MISs (continued)

    45. Components of a Decision Support System • Database • Model base • Dialogue manager: user interface that allows decision makers to: • Easily access and manipulate the DSS • Use common business terms and phrases • Access to the Internet, networks, and other computer-based systems

    46. Components of a Decision Support System Conceptual Model of a DSS

    47. The Database • Database management system • Allows managers and decision makers to perform qualitative analysison data stored in company’s databases, data warehouses, and data marts • Can also be used to connect to external databases • Data-driven DSS:primarily performs qualitative analysis based on the company’s databases

    48. The Model Base • Model base: provides decision makers with access to a variety of models and assists them in decision making • Allows them to perform quantitative analysison both internal and external data • Model-driven DSS:primarily performs mathematical or quantitative analysis • Model management software (MMS): software that coordinates the use of models in a DSS

    49. The User Interface or Dialogue Manager • Allows users to interact with the DSS to obtain information • Assists with all aspects of communications between user and hardware and software that constitute the DSS

    50. Group Support Systems • Group support system (GSS) • Consists of most elements in a DSS, plus software to provide effective support in group decision making • Also called group decision support system or computerized collaborative work system