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Care of Patients with Respiratory System Diseases and Disorders. Acute Care/Hospital Setting. GPS Standard. HS-TGM-12. Students will demonstrate understanding of advanced technical skills in respiratory care – Respiratory Therapy. a. Identify normal and abnormal respiratory effort.
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Acute Care/Hospital Setting
Management of patients with respiratory diseases and disorders may require a variety of devices and equipment.
It is important for healthcare workers involved in caring for patients with respiratory disorders to understand how to monitor, recognize and report problems in respiratory effort.
Additionally, the healthcare worker must be able to recognize types of respiratory care devices and understand the use of and how to safely manage devices.
How do body systems and structures operate to maintain normal functioning of the respiratory system?
How are patients with disorders or diseases of the respiratory system managed to meet their respiratory care needs?
What is the role of respiratory therapists, nurses and patient care technicians in providing care for patients with respiratory diseases or disorders?
How is oxygen therapy provided in a safe and therapeutic manners?
Students should know:
The differences between normal and abnormal respiratory effort
Croup tent usage and maintenance
Types, use and care of various respiratory devices
Safety issues related to respiratory therapy
How to monitor and provide care for patients with respiratory system diseases or disorders
Students should be able to demonstrate:
Setting up for oxygen administration via nasal cannula
Setting up for oxygen administration via mask
Pulse oximetry measurement
Suctioning the airway using a Yankauer catheter
Assisting with artificial airway care
Have students describe their breathing in terms of work of breathing (how easy/hard is it) on a sheet of paper.
Pass out drinking straws to each student in class. Instruct them that they are going to be involved in an activity to simulate breathing difficulties. Tell them that they will be breathing through the straw while pinching their nose closed. Students should be sitting down at this time.
Begin the timer and time them for one minute.
Ask students to describe their breathing and how they felt during this exercise.
Now ask them to do the same exercise while jogging in place. Time them for a minute.
Now describe in writing how their breathing felt during this part of the exercise.
Think about what it might be like to fight for every breath you take. How would having breathing problems affect everyday living (sleep, eating, activities, going to the bathroom, mowing the grass, washing clothes, working, etc.)
Use the following acronym and recall the structures through which air passes during inhalation
What gas is inhaled?
What gas is exhaled?
The right lung has ____ lobes
The left lung has ____ lobes
Accessory Muscle which separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities and flattens during inspiration is called ___________________.
Lungs protected by bony framework
Name the structures of the bony framework using the acronym below
Important for respiratory and cardiovascular systems to work together to meet the oxygen needs of the body
In the respiratory system, structures must function properly to allow exchange of O2 and CO2
What is the role of the cardiovascular system?
Blood must circulate to and from the heart
Exchange of O2 and CO2 must be able to take place between capillaries and cells
Nervous System plays an important role
Diseases of and injury to can affect respiratory muscles
Breathing may be difficult
Brain damage can affect respiratory rate
Respirations increase when oxygen level is low
Aging- decreased function because of weaker muscles, lung tissue loses elasticity
Exercise- increases need
Pain- increases need
Drugs- some may depress the respiratory center in brain and cause respiratory depression which can lead to respiratory arrest; examples-narcotics like Morphine, Demerol.
Smoking-causes lung cancer and COPD & risk factor for Disease of Coronary Arteries
Allergies-Sensitivity to substances in which the body reacts when exposed- runny nose, itchy eyes, wheezing, congestion and swelling in the airway which can become severe
Exposure to Pollutants-harmful substances in air or water like asbestos, toxic fumes which can be at work, school, or home
Nutrition – needs to be good for red blood cells which carry O2 to be produced, vitamins are important to produce the cells such as vitamin C, B12, Folic Acid
Alcohol-Depresses brain and can depress cough reflex in excess
Hypoxia-Cells do not have enough oxygen
Brain reacts to low oxygen person may become restless, disoriented and dizzy drowsy, personality change. Increased pulse rate
Should be reported to nurse to supervisor
Patients can have abnormal respirations
Bradypnea-slow breathing- <12/min
Tachypnea-rapid respirations >24
Apnea –absence of respirations
Cheyne-Stokes-Respirations increase in rate and depth and then become shallow and slow, periods of apnea may occur also
Kussmaul’s Respirations-Deep and Rapid
Hypoventilation-slow, shallow, & sometimes irregular –pneumonia, disease of alveoli. Nervous system disorder affecting respiratory system
Hyperventilation-rapid and deeper than normal respirations-can be caused by Asthma
Biot’s Respirations- Rapid and deep respirations followed by 10-30 seconds of apnea
Dyspnea- difficulty breathing-may be labored or painful
Orthopnea - breathe normally when in sitting position
Patient Assessment is an important part of patient care