Diseases of Respiratory System Sam Biller, Jeremy Oliver, Fallon McKeon, Andy Cirioli
Doctors Specializing in Respiratory System • Pulmonologist - the subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with diseases of the lungs and bronchial tubes, Anatomy - the upper respiratory tract (nose, pharynx and throat) and the heart. • Respiratory Therapist - the health care discipline that specializes in the promotion of optimum cardiopulmonary function and health • What they do? - Apply scientific principles to prevent, identify, and treat acute or chronic dysfunction of the cardiopulmonary system
Atelectasis Definition – collapse of part or all of the lung Cause – A blockage of air passages or pressure on the outside of the lung Mucus that plugs the airway Pressure on the lung (Pleural effusion) Tumors that block an airway Symptoms - Breathing difficulty, Chest Pain, after surgery Tests – Chest CT scan, Chest X-ray, Bronchoscopy
Atelectasis Treatment - Re-expand the collapsed lung tissue. Procedures - Clap on the chest, deep breathing exercises, Remove or relieve any blockage in the airways, postural drainage, treat a tumor.
Acute Bronchitis Definition – bronchial tubes are inflamed and irritated, tubes swell which causes less air to flow from the lungs and cough up heavy mucus Quick recovery within 2-3 weeks Causes – Virus, Cold, Flu, Bacteria, Breathing in Smoke Symptoms – Dry Cough, Mucus Cough, Tired, low fever Diagnoses - Similar to Pneumonia, Chest X ray, Questionnaire
Acute Bronchitis Treatment Symptoms start 3-4 days, get better 2-3 weeks, some more than 4 weeks Drink plenty of fluids Cough Medicine Cough drops or hard candies for sore throat
Emphysema/ Chronic Bronchitis (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) Progessive Disease Definition – Hard for patient to breathe Causes? – Smokers, Past Smokers, Exposed to Air pollution, chemical fumes, dust , Exposed to Smokers The airways and alveoli less elastic The walls between the alveoli are destroyed The walls of the airways inflamed The airways clogged up with excess mucus The spherical air sacs turn into large, irregular pockets with gaping holes in their inner walls. Symptoms - Shortness of breath, feeling tired, frequent chest infections, coughing up mucus
COPD Treatment – No cure, treatments and lifestyle changes can slow the diseases and manage the disease Examples: Surgery, Oxygen Therapy, Bronchodilators Goal – Relieve Symptoms, Slow the disease, Stay active, Prevent and treat complications, Improve overall health https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aktIMBQSXMo
Cystic Fibrosis An inherited disease of the secretory glands (Mucus and Sweat) Mucus - thick and sticky; builds up in your lungs and blocks your airways. Buildup of Mucus: easy for bacteria to grow, leads to repeated, serious lung infections Sinusitis an infection of the sinuses. Can cause bronchitis and pneumonia Cause: Defect in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene CFTR Responsibility: to make a protein that controls the movement of salt and water in and out of your body's cells Autosomal recessive pattern - Each person inherits two CFTR genes, a person needs to inherit both to be infected, but one to be a carrier
Cystic Fibrosis Most common in white people of Northern European ancestry Could occur in Hispanics, African-Americans and some Native Americans. Rare people of Asian and Middle Eastern origin Pre-Diagnose: Sweat Test and Genetic Test Post Diagnose: Imaging Tests and Lung Function Test Treatment: No cure Antibiotics, Mucus thinning drugs and Bronchodilators Goal: Prevent and Control lung infections , Loosening and removing mucus from lungs
Cystic Fibrosis Mutations in the CFTR gene cause cystic fibrosis. The CFTR gene provides instructions for making a channel that transports negatively charged particles called chloride ions into and out of cells. Chloride is a component of sodium chloride, a common salt found in sweat. Chloride also has important functions in cells; for example, the flow of chloride ions helps control the movement of water in tissues, which is necessary for the production of thin, freely flowing mucus. Mutations in the CFTR gene disrupt the function of the chloride channels, preventing them from regulating the flow of chloride ions and water across cell membranes. As a result, cells that line the passageways of the lungs, pancreas, and other organs produce mucus that is unusually thick and sticky. This mucus clogs the airways and various ducts, causing the characteristic signs and symptoms of cystic fibrosis. Other genetic and environmental factors likely influence the severity of the condition. For example, mutations in genes other than CFTR might help explain why some people with cystic fibrosis are more severely affected than others. Most of these genetic changes have not been identified, however.
Asthma • Chronic lung disease that inflames and narrows the airways • Who it affects? Everyone, but mostly starts at childhood • No Exact Cause, but assumptions: • Atopy - An inherited tendency to develop allergies • Parents who have asthma • Certain respiratory infections during childhood • Contact with some airborne allergens or exposure to some viral infections in infancy or in early childhood when the immune system is developing • The Hygiene Hypothesis • Symptoms: • Coughing • Wheezing • Shortness of breath • Chest tightness • Trigger Actions: • Allergens from dust, animal fur, cockroaches, mold, and pollens from trees, • Irritants like cigarette smoke, air pollution, chemicals or dust in the workplace • Medicines • Sulfites in foods and drinks • Viral upper respiratory infections • Physical activity
Asthma Treatment: No cure, but a person with asthma can live normal, active lives and sleep through the night without interruption Diagnoses: Lung Function Test, Physical Exam
Work Cited http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000065.htm http://www.webmd.com/lung/tc/acute-bronchitis-topic-overview http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/141287.php http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/emphysema/DS00296 http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/atl/treatment.html http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/asthma/signs.html http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/info/asthma/ http://www.medicinenet.com/cystic_fibrosis/page8.htm#what_is_the_outlook_for_cystic_fibrosis http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/cystic-fibrosis http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/asthma/DS00021 http://www.lung.org/lung-disease/bronchitis-chronic/understanding-chronic-bronchitis.html