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SOME ARIZONA INVERTEBRATE ANIMALS. Phylum Mollusca = the mollusks – the clams, snail, slugs, ect . Represent the second largest animal phyla with most living in a marine environment. A. Characterized by: 1. Muscular foot: is the organ of locomotion that leaves a trail of slime .

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some arizona invertebrate animals
SOME ARIZONA INVERTEBRATE ANIMALS

Phylum Mollusca = the mollusks – the clams, snail, slugs, ect. Represent the second largest animal phyla with most living in a marine environment.

A. Characterized by:

1. Muscular foot: is the organ of locomotion that leaves a trail of slime.

2. Mantle: this thin membranous covering secretes Ca++ deposits to form a shell.

3. Visceral mass: is the internal organs.

mollusks class gastropoda stomach foot
MOLLUSKS_ CLASS GASTROPODA “STOMACH FOOT”

B. Class Gastropoda (“Stomach Foot”) Snails with a univalve shell or slugs with out a shell.

Desert snails (such as in the genus Helix) are only active during cool +moist season like the months of January+ February.

During the hot summer, they seek protected sites, pull back into their shell a+ secrete an impervious plug called an epiphragm.

The shell and the epiphragm allow some oxygen + moisture to pass through.

Snails tolerate desiccation of 40-45% of its body water, For humans, a loss of 10%body water results in nervous dysfunction and 18-20% is lethal.

Gastropods eat plants, using a rasp-like tongue known as a radula

clams
CLAMS

C. Class Pelecypoda (“spade foot”) Clams with bivalve shell of right + left halves. Not found on land, but in ponds, streams, and canals.

arthropods
ARTHROPODS

II. Phylum Arthopoda (“jointed Foot”)- is the largest animal phylum consisting of nearly 90% of all animal species.

Characteristics

1. Bodies covered with a chitinous exoskeleton that is secreted by the epidermal cells.

a. Is a multilayered structure consisting of chitin, protein, + wax.

b. Functions include:

1. Protection- a suit of armor.

2. Reduction of water loss.

3. Framework for muscle attachment.

c. Disadvantages:

1. Heavy in proportion to total body weight.

2. Must be removed (molting) making the arthropod vulnerable.

more characteristics
MORE CHARACTERISTICS

2. Jointed appendages- necessary for movement + a lever system.

3. Special senses are many and well developed.

a. Propioceptors or position receptors.

b. Chemoreceptors or chemical receptors. Pheromones are chemical used to attract members of the same species.

c. Photoreceptors or light receptors.

d. Mechanoreceptors or receptors sensitive to touch, air movement + vibrations.

more characteristics1
MORE CHARACTERISTICS

4. Thermoregulation- heterotherms + ectotherms.

5. Reproduction is mostly oviparous.

a. Internal fertilization- an important land adaptation preventing the dehydration of gametes (egg + sperm).

1. Arachnids

Male produces a spermatophore.

2. Spiders

arthropod development
ARTHROPOD DEVELOPMENT

b. Development

1. Arachnids

2. Insect Metamorphosis

Complete Metamorphosis Gradual Metamorphosis

arthropoda diversity
ARTHROPODA DIVERSITY

1. Class- Arachnida- Characteristics include: 2 body regions, the cephlothorax + abdomen; 6 pair of walking legs; no antennae; simple eyes; chelicera for chewing food.

a. Order Scorpionida- elongated body with abdomen of 12 segments terminating in a venomous stinger segment known as thetelson; pedipalps with enlarged pincers; sensory pectins on ventral surface.

1.) Centruroidessculpturatus- bark scorpion

2.) Hadrurushirsutus + H. arizonesis- Desert hairy scorpion

3.) Vejovisspinigerus- striped – tail scorpion

more arthropod diversity
MORE ARTHROPOD DIVERSITY

b. Order Solpugida- sun “spiders” or wind “spiders”; massive chelicerae-like pincers; diurnal

c. OrderUropygi–Whipscorpions + vinegaroons; dark brow; massive pedipalps; elongated flagellum at the end of the abdomen; emits acetic acid spray when threatened; nocturnal, under rocks + litter by day.

d. Order Acarina- ticks + mites

yikes spiders
YIKES---SPIDERS

e. OrderAraneae-spiders; abdomen with out segmentation; chelicerae small with venom duct.

1.) Family Theraphosidae-Tarantulas; large, hairy spiders with over 30 Arizona species: defends itself by hair flicking; venom not toxic to man.

2.) family Theridiidae- black widow; female with red hour glass on ventral surface of abdomen; highly toxic bite; around junk.

3.) family Lycosidae- wolf spider.

centipedes verus millipedes
CENTIPEDES VERUS MILLIPEDES

2. ClassChilopoda- Centipedes- Scolopendraheros-giant desert centipede; up to 8”; orange flattened body; one pair of legs/ body segment; dark head; venomous mouth parts + painful bite; carnivorous.

3. Class Diplopoda- Millipedes- Julus sp. Dark brown cylindrical body with 2 pair of legs/segment; non venomous; eat decaying plant matter.

crustaceans
CRUSTACEANS

4. Class Crustacea-2 pair antennae; breathe with gills; primarily aquatic.

a. Order Decapoda- crayfish/crawdads.

b. Order Isopoda- Pill bugs, terrestrial; feed on decaying material.

the insects
THE INSECTS

5. Class Insecta-insects-body divided into head, thorax, + abdomen; 3 pairs of legs attached to the thorax; 2 antennae; compound eye.

a. Order Thysanura-Silverfish

b. Order Odonata- Dragonflies + Damselflies

more insect orders
MORE INSECT ORDERS

c. Orthoptera- Crickets, grasshoppers, mantids, cockroaches

d. Isoptera-Termites

e. Dermaptera-Earwigs

even more insect orders
EVEN MORE INSECT ORDERS

f. Hemiptera-True Bugs

g. Homoptera- Cicadas, aphids

h. Neuroptera-Lacewings + ant lions

beetles lots of them
BEETLES—LOTS OF THEM

9. Coleoptera- Beetles- Forewings shell like; hind wings for flight. Some taxonomists estimate that every fifth species on this planet is a type of beetle!!

butterflies and moths
BUTTERFLIES AND MOTHS

10. Lepidoptera-moths and butterflies

flies bees and ants
FLIES, BEES, AND ANTS

11. Diptera- Flies, mosquitos, gnats

12. Hymenoptera -Bees, wasp, and ants