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Medieval Japan: Age of Warrior Rule?. Political Systems and Economy, 12 th -15 th c. Themes. Hybrid political and cultural world Multiple centers, or pillars, of power, political and economic Aristocratic and military Kyoto and elsewhere (Kamakura)

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medieval japan age of warrior rule

Medieval Japan: Age of Warrior Rule?

Political Systems and Economy, 12th-15th c.

themes
Themes
  • Hybrid political and cultural world
    • Multiple centers, or pillars, of power, political and economic
      • Aristocratic and military
      • Kyoto and elsewhere (Kamakura)
  • Weakening, gradual, of central government
    • Away from an era of aristocratic government
    • Entering an age of military power, more than military government
looking ahead 3 major warrior governments
Looking Ahead: 3 Major Warrior Governments

Kamakura (1185-1333): military power and rule in tandem with Kyoto

Muromachi (1336-1573): military takes over at center, yet reach is limited

Edo (1600-1868): military stands supreme

slide4

Burning of Sanjo Palace

http://www.mfa.org/artemis/fullrecord.asp?oid=24523&did=300

Taira versus Minamoto: Genpei wars, 1180-85

  • Minamoto: teeth and claws of Fujiwara, with base of power in East
  • Taira: warrior clan with power in West
  • Taira crush Minamoto in 1150s, entrench selves in Kyoto
  • Minamoto rise again, 1180s, under Yoritomo and prevail
  • Takes “shogun” title, 1192 (i-i-ku-ni=いい国)
  • Story told in The Tale of the Heiji and Tale of the Heike
slide5

The first shogun:

Minamoto Yoritomo

In court

robe and

cap

hybrid political and economic regimes

Kamakura-based

“bakufu”

Public

Fujiwara

or large temple

Shogun

Emperor

Noble, shrine

or temple

Bureaucrats

Shugo

Provincial

Governors

Jitō

Local

strongman

Shōen

Hybrid Political and Economic Regimes

Kyoto-Based Regime

Private estates

slide9

Genghis Khan emerges to dominate Asia

Extent of Mongol control

Marco Polo’s route

Collapse of Kamakura bakufu

Hōjō family emerges to

dominate bakufu, 1200s

why japan
Why Japan?

Mongols subjugated Korea (Koryo) in 1258

Want to conquer S. Song (China)

Japan is Song ally

Japan seen as land of wealth

Khubilai sends friendly letter, but with veiled threat…

BACKGROUND

REASONS

ACTIONS

the japanese response
The Japanese Response

Court - unsure how to respond, willing to be conciliatory, wants to avoid war

Bakufu - more aggressive, unwilling to be conciliatory, will risk war

slide13

Kublai Kahn

invasions

slide16

Nichiren

Prayers

rewarded

by

“Kamikaze”

(divine wind)

神風

slide17

Ashikaga Takauji

  • Resides in Kyoto,
  • Revenue from commerce, trade
  • Weak control of land in provinces
  • Shugo emerge as local hegemons with warrior bands, the “kokujin”
shift in hybrid regimes

Muromachi “bakufu”

Kamakura

“bakufu”

Public

Shogun

Fujiwara

or large temple

Shogun

Emperor

Shugo

“daimyo”

Noble, shrine

or temple

Bureaucrats

Shugo

Provincial

Governors

Jitō

Local

strongman

Jitō

Shōen

Shift in Hybrid Regimes

Private estates

a feudal order
A feudal order?

Emperor

Monarch

Shogun

Pope

Lord

Shugo-protector

Kokujin: knight

Knight

Cultivator

conclusions
Conclusions
  • Growing importance of military power
  • Hybrid Kamakura polity; multiple pillars
  • Weakening military government
  • Asian context as catalyst
  • Hybrid Ashikaga polity: Kyoto-based, losing control of countryside