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Ch. 6 PowerPoint Presentation

Ch. 6

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Ch. 6

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  1. Ch. 6 • Memory

  2. The information-processing model of memory describes how information is encoded, organized, and stored in memory, and how it is retrieved from memory • Information-processing Model Movie

  3. 1. The Sensory Registers Information-Processing Model • A. Visual and Auditory Registers • Visual icons and auditory echoes • Unlimited capacity, but rapid decay • B. Attention • Selects further processing • Cocktail-party phenomenon

  4. 2. Short-Term Memory • A. Capacity of STM • Chunking • 5-10 bits (older theory) • What is rehearsed in 1.5 to 2 seconds • B. Encoding in STM • Auditory and visual • Visual encoded more efficiently • C. Maintaining STM • Rote rehearsal of repeating something • Does not result in long term memory

  5. Primacy and Recency Effects

  6. 3. Long-Term Memory • A. Capacity of LTM • Vast amount of information may be stored for many years • B. Encoding in LTM • Semantic= general facts • Episodic=info with personal meaning and imagery

  7. C. Serial Position Effect • People tend to recall the first and last items in a list • Short- and long-term memory work together • D. Maintaining LTM • Rote repetition • Elaborative rehearsal • Processing information in a meaningful way

  8. E. Types of LTM • Semantic memories= general facts • Procedural memories= motor skills and habits • Emotional memories= learned emotional responses • Explicit memory • Intentional memory • Implicit memory • Unintentional memory • Click here to view the Types of Memories table

  9. 4. The Biology of Memory • A. How Are Memories Formed? • Changes in synaptic connections among neural cells • This is called consolidation • B. Where are Memories Stored? • There is no one place • Different parts of the brain are specialized • Biology of Memory Movie

  10. 5. Forgetting • A. The Biology of Forgetting • Decay theory • Retrograde amnesia • B. Experience and Forgetting • Retroactive interference • Proactive interference

  11. In retroactive interference, new information interferes with old information already in LTM; proactive interference refers to the process by which old information already in LTM interferes with new information. Interference affects both storage and retrieval of information

  12. C. How to Reduce Forgetting • Develop motivation • Practice memory skills • Be confident • Minimize distraction and stay focused • Make meaning connections to what is in long-term memory • Use mnemonics • Mnemonics Movie • Use mental imagery • Use retrieval cues

  13. 6. Special Topics in Memory • A. Autobiographical Memory • Recollection of events in our life • B. Childhood Amnesia • Generally poor memory for events prior to age 2 • C. Extraordinary Memory • Usually due to well developed memory techniques • D. Flashbulb Memories • Vivid memories of dramatic event

  14. E. Eyewitness Testimony • May be related to what they heard or imagined • F. Recovered Memories • Later recall of forgotten dramatic event • G. Cultural Influences on Memory • Cultural values and practices influence what kinds of things we remember and how easily we recall them

  15. Role of priming on memory • Person is first exposed to a stimulus, usually a word or picture • Later, the person is shown a fragment of the same stimulus and is asked to complete it • Result is that people are more likely to complete fragments with items seen earlier than with other equally plausible items • Amnesic patients do as well as people with normal memory, indicating that priming is implicit, not explicit memory

  16. SQ3R – What Is It? Stands for survey, question, read, recite, review • Survey - Before you begin reading, look at headings, captions, summary, etc. • Question – Translate each heading into questions about the text to follow. • Read – Read and try to answer above questions • Recite – Recite from memory the information you remember and the answers to your questions • Review – Review notes, relate material to relevant ideas, make examples from experience, etc.