Loading in 2 Seconds...
Loading in 2 Seconds...
European Wind Energy Conference EWEC 2006 AthensThursday, 2 March 2006 Winning hearts and mindsBusiness & Policy Track / Session Code: DB2 Guidelines for Realization of Wind Plants and their Integration in the Territory Authors: Alessandro Brusa and Cristian Lanfranconi – APER, Italy
About APER - Italian Association of RES-E Producers • With its 260 members, APER acts as a non-profit association promoting a wider culture of renewable energy in respect of the environment and in the view of a fully sustainable development. • APER is a surely relevant actor in the Italian renewable energy market, its form of association and its composition of producers guarantee the independence of the organisation and the representation of all forms and sizes of technology. • APER is the biggest Italian association within the category • Producers > 260 • Plant > 400 • Power > 2.000 MW • Renewable energy yearly production > 7 TWh
APER WORK We collected experience from wind plant producers as well as local administrations, environmental associations and international scientific literature. Target is to offer a better understanding of wind energy to regional and local administrations as well as environmental associations Many viewpoints need to be considered in realizing a wind plant: regulation, economic assessment, impact on environmental and landscape, community acceptance and associated infrastructures as electric net and presence of roads It is important realize that any wind plant has to be specifically planned because of the individuality of the concerned land.
APER WORK • We started our research concerning Guidelines for Realization of Wind Plants and their Integration in the Territoryfrom Italian legislation and RE producer’s experience. • Italy show a complex orography which require a high degree of understanding of the land to integrate wind plants properly in the territory • From the Italian case some more general considerations can be elaborated Viewpoint to be considered in realizing a wind plant
Viewpoint to be considered in realizing a wind plant • Regulation • Technical and economic assessment and exploitation of the wind energy source • Impact on the environment and on the landscape • Local community acceptance of the wind farm • Associated presence of infrastructures as electric net and roads • We identified five sets of relevant issues • Identification of allowed, critical and forbidden area • Technical requirements of the land • Project and building issues • Environmental and landscape issues • Economic commitment Target Advices/Recommendations for realization of wind plants and their integration into the territory
Environmental and landscape impacts • Impact on vegetation, flora, fauna, birds and ecosystem • Noise • Electromagnetic impact • Perturbation of the aerodynamic field • Interference for telecommunications • Visual impact in the landscape and integration in the territory Wind power evolution and growing diffusion of wind turbines on the land requires experts within wind industry to develop and use new concepts to fit wind plants properly in the environment in order to: 1. minimize and limit environmental impact of the wind plant 2. fit wind farms in the territory as welcome anthropic elements which increase the value of the land It is important realize that any wind plant has to be specifically planned because of the individuality of the concerned land. General criteria for wind farm integration in the territory have do be focused and adapted to the local context.
Integration of wind plants in the territory and landscape: Flatland examples Schonhagen – 10 – 1000 kW Porep – 31 * 2000 kW Roter Berg – 4 * 1500 kW Source: WKN Windkraft Nord AG (D)
Integration of wind plants in the territory and landscape: Plateau examples La Muela, Aragon – 132 * 750 kW Serra do Burgo, Orense – 19 * 850 kW La Muela Aersa, Aragon – 27 * 600 kW Source: http://www.industcards.com/wind-spain.htm
Hydrography Fauna Integration of wind plants in the territory and landscape The analysis should take care of a set of interacting natural and human components Human components Natural components Infrastructures Inhabited areas Morphology Agricoltural areas Vegetation Source: ICQ Group (Italy)
Literature studies show that: • Landscape impact due to: • Number of blades and number of towers • Tower high and turbine size • A few big turbines rather than a lot smaller ones • Rotor movement has seen as a positive feature Source: ICQ Group (Italy)
Some teaching experiences from the past: Analysis of the teaching examples: • missing observance of a minimum distance between aerogenerators and inhabited areas • very high density of wind turbines • missing observance of a minimum distance between aerogenerators themself • tubular versus lattice tower (elderly concept, on the background) • Plant design doesn’t take care of the peculiarities of the area Source: internet
Some positive examples from the gained experiences : Breeding and… …agricultural areas Source: internet and Edison Energie Speciali (Italy)
Some positive examples: …industrial areas… Source: internet
Some positive examples: …and tourist areas Source: internet
Analysis of the positive examples: • low density of the towers • tubular tower (no lattice one) • integration with farming activities • fauna not bothered by the wind farm • correct fit of the plant on the environment • wind park open to human activities and to the fauna • design of the plant taking care of the peculiarities of the specific area • correct fitting in an industrial area • good message towards public opinion (wind plant and tourism)
Is the plant planimetry sufficient in order to fit correctly the wind farm into the land? Usually it is not Source: Capurso - APER (Italy)
Example 1 in a complex land: two layout for one wind farm Potential area suitable for the plant High slope wooded land with short transversal dimension Free land Source: Studio Rinnovabili (Italy)
Analysis of the example n°1: 25 towers Layout A Layout A is notrecommended because shows the following issues: High impact as visual barrier Use of wooded land High slope area Short transversal dimension close to mountain peak Critical area X 8 towers Layout B Layout B is recommended because take care of land characteristics and mitigation strategies: Minimum distance between towers: 250-300 m Layout according with prevalent wind directions Exploitation of non wooded area ~ 2X Source: Studio Rinnovabili (Italy)
Example 2 in a complex land: Final Layout and identification of the real static and dynamic visual points Wind plant Static Dynamic Source: ICQ Group (Ialy)
Identification of the zone of visual influence 66 towers 44 towers Source: ICQ Group (Italy)
Photomontage and rendering from different visual points Planned wind farm Source: ICQ Group (Italy)
Some mitigation criteria • Mitigation measures of theimpact on the landscape: • design of the plant taking care of the peculiarities of the specific area • underground cables • Respect of a minimum distance from buildings • Tower and blade typology and colour (latter or tubular) • Neutral colour and anti reflex painting for towers and blades • Signal for low-altitude flight just for more exposed towers taking care of safety requirements • Bird preservation measures: • Appropriate design (Tubular tower versus lattice one) • Make turbines and towers visible • Slow rotating turbines • Electrical cables to be laid down underground • Avoid migration corridors • Respect fauna breeding time
Some mitigation criteria • Specific measures in order to mitigate the impact of the wind farms on the territory and on the flora are: • control erosion • Steadiness of the declivities • minimize modifications of the habitat during building and working phases • Use as much as possible existing roads and integrating in the specific landscape new access roads • Aerial electric grid when underground • cables are incompatible with environmental, • geological or archaeologist issues • Restriction of building time • maximum reinstatement of the flora • removed during building phase • Return the area to the original use • after the construction of the wind farm • Return the area to the original state • after decommissioning of the plant 7 m 5 m Source: internet
Conclusions: • The secret is to develop wind plants interacting with the territory in order to grow its own value by: • Understanding of the territory and of its own peculiar characteristics • Optimizing use of the infrastructures (roads, electric grid, substations,..) • Evaluation of environmental impacts and risks (high nature quality, flora and fauna habitat, special protection areas and bird directive, breeding areas, forests,…) • Evaluation of visual impacts (landscape, historical, architectural and archeological heritage) • Dialogue and involvement of public communities and local authorities • The impact of the wind plant can be minimized by an appropriate selection of mitigation measures, planning plant decommissioning and restoring of the land. The analysis should be developed chance by chance and the plant has to be conceive and understood as a new anthropic element which changes and requalify the territory and the landscape as an example of energetic architecture.
APER Guidelines for Realization of Wind Plants and their Integration in the Territory
Thank you! Cristian Lanfranconi, APER – Milan, Italy email@example.com www.aper.it Source: Energia Sud (Italy)