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Orientation to NIFA. 2010 National Extension and Research Administrative Officers’ Conference. This Is My Hope. …that my talk will not be like the dairy farmer and the fly. Overview of this session…. We will cover three broad areas: How NIFA relates to the Land-Grant System;

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orientation to nifa

Orientation to NIFA

2010

National Extension and Research

Administrative Officers’ Conference

National Institute of Food and Agriculture

this is my hope
This Is My Hope
  • …that my talk will not be like the dairy farmer and the fly.

National Institute of Food and Agriculture

overview of this session
Overview of this session…
  • We will cover three broad areas:
    • How NIFA relates to the Land-Grant System;
    • How the Federal budget process works; and,
    • How NIFA provide funds to universities and others.

National Institute of Food and Agriculture

what is a land grant
What Is a Land-Grant?
  • In the beginning: 1862
  • USDA and Land-Grants
  • Why they are called land-grant institutions.

National Institute of Food and Agriculture

key legislation
Key Legislation
  • USDA - May 15, 1862.
  • First Morrill Act of 1862.
  • Hatch Act of 1887.
  • Second Morrill Act of 1890.
  • Smith-Lever Act of 1914.
  • Equity in Educational Land-grant Status Act of 1994.

National Institute of Food and Agriculture

more legislation
More Legislation
  • Natl. Agricultural Research, Extension and Teaching Policy Act of 1977 - P.L. 95-113
      • Section 1444…1890 Extension
      • Section 1445…1890 Research

National Institute of Food and Agriculture

slide7
NIFA
  • We are USDA’s primary link to the land-grant community;
  • We are a financial assistance agency; and,
  • We are the Federal partner in collaborative and cooperative ventures in:
    • Education
    • Extension
    • Research

National Institute of Food and Agriculture

the mission of nifa
The Mission of NIFA
  • To advance knowledge for agriculture, the environment, human health and well being, and communities.

National Institute of Food and Agriculture

federal state partnership
Federal/State Partnership
  • Delivering in three functional areas:

Higher

Education

NIFA

Extension

Research

National Institute of Food and Agriculture

nifa partner institutions
NIFA Partner Institutions
  • 130 Colleges of Agriculture, including Land-Grant Institutions;
  • 59 Agricultural Experiment Stations;
  • 57 Cooperative Extension Services;
  • 63 Schools of Forestry;
  • 27 Colleges of Veterinary Medicine;
  • 42 Schools & Colleges of Family & Consumer Sciences;
  • 18 1890 Universities & Tuskegee University;
  • 34 1994 Native American Land-Grant Institutions.
  • Over 250 Hispanic Serving Institutions

National Institute of Food and Agriculture

new category hsacus
New Category: HSACUs
  • Hispanic Serving Agricultural Colleges and Universities
  • Will come from the community of more than 250 HSIs currently accredited by the Department of Education
  • HSACU = HSI + degree in field related to agriculture

National Institute of Food and Agriculture

one example of nifa programs the cooperative extension system
One Example of NIFA Programs:The Cooperative Extension System
  • Federal Partner = USDA
  • State Partner = LGU’s
  • Local Partner = Counties (~3,100)
  • Ultimate Partner =

American Citizens

National Institute of Food and Agriculture

agency mechanisms for land grant support
Agency Mechanisms for Land-Grant Support
  • Non-competitive
    • Formula Funds
    • Special Grants
    • Administrative Grants
  • Competitive
    • Agriculture and Food Research Initiative (AFRI)
    • Other competitive grant authorizations (education, extension, and facilities)

National Institute of Food and Agriculture

note on the partnership
Note on the Partnership
  • CES is the largest, and arguably the best, non-formal adult education system in the world.
  • Major reason for success: State and local governments decide which state and local issues to address.

National Institute of Food and Agriculture

some mechanics
Some Mechanics
  • USDA MOU  States
  • States  MOU  Counties
  • Matching Dollars

National Institute of Food and Agriculture

counties and citizens
Counties and Citizens
  • Counties  Volunteers
  • Volunteers????

National Institute of Food and Agriculture

anecdote number 1
Anecdote Number 1

A few years ago, USDA’s Forest Service was battling a serious disease problem, “Sudden Oak Death (Phytophthoraramorum ).” They needed additional trained “scouts,” but did not have the resources to get them. Solution? Extension Master Gardeners. More than100,000 of them.

National Institute of Food and Agriculture

anecdote number 2
Anecdote Number 2
  • 4-H: utilizes more than 3 million adult person days of volunteer assistance each year. This is equivalent to adding another federal agency that employs 11,500 people.

National Institute of Food and Agriculture

final anecdote
Final Anecdote
  • Question: How are 4-H kids possibly related to Urban Serving Institutes? More than half the current 6.5 million 4-H kids are suburban or urban dwellers.
  • And…Remember the 3 million person days of adult volunteer assistance?

National Institute of Food and Agriculture

final anecdote part 2
Final Anecdote, Part 2
  • Those 6.5 million kids plus millions of adults should be suggestive of what Extension would call a community of interest, but what I call a political resource: there are more than 45 million living 4-H alumni in the U.S.
  • That’s a voting bloc!

National Institute of Food and Agriculture

before we move on
Before we move on…
  • Do you have any questions?

?

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interlude
Interlude
  • …Jumper cable
  • ……Alligator
  • ………Grasshopper

National Institute of Food and Agriculture

introduction to the federal budget process and nifa funding

Introduction to the Federal Budget Process andNIFA Funding

National Institute of Food and Agriculture

cautionary disclaimer
Cautionary Disclaimer
  • Traditionally, the NIFA Budget Officer, Tina Buch, speaks on the federal budget process.
  • Unfortunately, she cannot be here, so you are stuck with me. But Tina knows many of you, and sends her regards.

National Institute of Food and Agriculture

federal budget process
Federal Budget Process

Timeline stays the same from year to year…usually.

But as we all have seen recently, sometimes the process varies:

In FY 2007, we had a full-year continuing resolution.

National Institute of Food and Agriculture

more on the budget process
More on the Budget Process
  • In 2009, we had a CR until mid-March.
  • The FY 2010 budget that should have become public this past February was also delayed.

National Institute of Food and Agriculture

more on the federal budget process
More on the Federal Budget Process

Appropriations…October 1(but note that Congress doesn’t usually get this done on time. In FY 2007, we didn’t even have a full-year continuing resolution until February 15, 2007; in 2008, our appropriation was signed December 26, 2007. And in 2009, it was signed in March.)

National Institute of Food and Agriculture

budget process
Budget Process
  • During the spring and up until around July 4 of each year, NIFA develops input for the President’s budget request for the second year following. For example, we are currently in the spring of FY2010, and we are developing our input for the budget that will fund FY2012.
  • On/about July 4, we will submit our request to the Secretary of Agriculture. Note that this request will comply with OMB guidance.

National Institute of Food and Agriculture

more on the federal budget process1
More on the Federal Budget Process
  • OMB Passback (Late November)…often the day after Thanksgiving…this will be for FY 2012
  • President’s 2012 Budget due to Congress no later than the first Monday in February, 2011

National Institute of Food and Agriculture

federal budget process continued
Federal Budget Process(continued)
  • AND FINALLY (sort of*)
  • Appropriation hearings…February, March, April
  • Culminating, we hope, in an appropriation on October 1, 2010, the first day of FY 2011.

* The process really never ends…Hearings on a given year are followed by Agency Estimates being due for the following year, and so on, and on, and on….

National Institute of Food and Agriculture

federal budget faqs
Federal Budget FAQs
  • Who are the key players in the budget process?
    • OMB
    • Secretary of Agriculture
    • OBPA
    • REE Under Secretary
    • NIFA Director

National Institute of Food and Agriculture

federal budget faqs1
Federal Budget FAQs
  • What is the role of stakeholders in the budget process?
  • When can stakeholders provide input?
  • Why aren’t budgets larger?
  • Why doesn’t the NIFA budget mirror the budget recommendations of stakeholders like APLU?

National Institute of Food and Agriculture

federal budget faqs2
Federal Budget FAQs
  • Why doesn’t NIFA share all the details with its staff and stakeholders prior to the release of he budget in February? And what does it mean that the budget is “Behind the Curtain?”
  • What if I file a Freedom of Information Act request to get this budget information?

National Institute of Food and Agriculture

federal budget faqs3
Federal Budget FAQs
  • What are the differences among an appropriation, an authorization, and a budget resolution?

National Institute of Food and Agriculture

questions so far
QUESTIONS so far?

? ? ? ?

National Institute of Food and Agriculture

2 nd interlude
2nd Interlude

A man walks into a florist shop and tells the proprietor, “I’d like 2 dozen of the beautiful anemones in your window.”

The proprietor replies, “I don’t have 2 dozen of them, but I can give you 2 dozen of these lovely ferns, instead.”

The customer says, “Fine…

National Institute of Food and Agriculture

end thank god of 2 nd interlude
End (thank God) of 2nd Interlude
  • “…with fronds like these, who needs anemones?”

National Institute of Food and Agriculture

on to funding
ON TO FUNDING!
  • FINE…WE HAVE AN APPROPRIATION…WHAT DOES NIFA DO WITH ALL THAT MONEY?
  • We award more than 96 percent of it to grantees.

National Institute of Food and Agriculture

who does nifa fund
Who Does NIFA Fund?
  • You (or, at least, your institution.)
  • …and lots of other eligible persons and organizations. Eligibility varies from program to program.

National Institute of Food and Agriculture

what does nifa fund
What Does NIFA Fund?

The mission of NIFA is to advance knowledge.

  • We carry out this mission by enabling others to conduct research, extension, and education activities.
  • So…we fund research, extension, and education programs that tend to advance knowledge in agriculture.

National Institute of Food and Agriculture

three types of funding
Three Types of Funding
  • Competitive…Agriculture and Food Research Initiative, for example
  • Formula…Smith-Lever 3(b) and 3(c), for example
  • Congressionally Directed funding...these are the “special” projects that Congress inserts into the NIFA budget…Earmarks.

National Institute of Food and Agriculture

cautionary note
Cautionary note…
  • There is enough of this stuff to put you to sleep easily…but we don’t want that.
  • So…go tohttp://www.NIFA.usda.gov/ and click on “Funding Opportunities”

Fine…let’s talk about a few selected programs from each type of funding.

National Institute of Food and Agriculture

competitive
Competitive
  • Big example: the Agriculture and Food Research Initiative…$262 million in FY 2010.
  • Small example: Methyl Bromide Transition Program…$3.1 million in FY09.

National Institute of Food and Agriculture

other competitive programs
Other Competitive Programs
  • Specialty Crop Research Initiative (uses mandatory funding)
  • Food Safety Initiative (“406 authority”)
  • International Science and Education Grants Program (“non-406 integrated activity.”)

National Institute of Food and Agriculture

formula
Formula
  • Big Example…Hatch Research…$215 million in FY 2010
  • Small Example…Section 1433 Animal Health and Disease…$2.95 million in FY 2010.

National Institute of Food and Agriculture

other formula programs
Other Formula Programs
  • Evans-Allen Research
  • Smith-Lever 3(b) and 3(c)
  • Extension for 1890 Institutions
  • McIntire-Stennis Cooperative Forestry Research

National Institute of Food and Agriculture

earmarks
Earmarks
  • We don’t like them, because they tend to address limited audiences, and because in a zero-sum budget environment they reduce resources for everyone else.
  • But once we have them, they get subjected to the same rigorous treatment as any of our other grant programs…

National Institute of Food and Agriculture

in summary
In Summary

THINK

“3”

National Institute of Food and Agriculture

think 3
Think “3”

3 Partners

--Federal

--State

--Local

National Institute of Food and Agriculture

think 31
Think “3”

3 Functions

  • Research
  • Education
  • Extension

National Institute of Food and Agriculture

think 32
Think “3”

3 Types of Funding

  • Formula
  • Competitive
  • Earmarks

National Institute of Food and Agriculture

the bottom line
The Bottom Line

Regardless of the type of program, or the means of funding, or which partners are involved, the purpose is always the same: “…to advance knowledge.”

National Institute of Food and Agriculture

thank you
Thank You!

National Institute of Food and Agriculture