Imperialism - 19th - 20th century - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Imperialism - 19th - 20th century
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Imperialism - 19th - 20th century

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  1. Imperialism - 19th - 20th century

  2. What does “Imperialism” mean?

  3. Imperial motivations • Imperialism: takeover of a country by a stronger nation with the intent of domination over the political, economic and social life of the people of that nation • Imperialism begins in the backdrop of industrialization -> why might industrialization lead to imperialism?

  4. Areas of Imperialism • Africa • Middle East • India • Southeast Asia

  5. Motivations for Imperialism • 1. New markets and raw materials for industry • 2. National pride/bragging rights • 3. Belief in European supremacy • Racism • Social Darwinism • Missionaries

  6. Imperialism in Africa • A variety of external and internal forces enabled Imperialism in the late 1800’s in Africa • 1. Maxim gun • 2. Railroad and steam engine • 3. Cure for malaria - quinine • 4. Disunity of African peoples • 5. Poor technological development in Africa

  7. Scramble for Africa • Britain, France, Belgium, Germany, Portugal and Spain were fighting to claim lands throughout Africa beginning with Belgian Congo • Described as the “Scramble for Africa” • European powers began to establish colonies or “spheres of influence”

  8. How did European Countries Divide Africa? • Period 1 Groups • 1. Brianna, Andrew, Lindsay, Ryan, Aaron • 2. Tess, Jenna, Allan, Robbie, Kaile, Nikhil • 3. Brooke, Jordan, Jon, Liat, Tatum, Mukesh • 4.Kyle, Phoebe, Mike, Frank, Emily

  9. How did European Countries Divide Africa? • Pd 2 Groups • 1. Eleanor, Marco, Sam R.,Jason, Nick • 2. Gabby, Sam V., Jolie, Max, Rachel • 3. Milin, Austin, Jamie, Marissa, Caroline, Ashley

  10. Impact of Imperialism:Berlin Conference • To avoid large scales wars amongst European countries, 14 Euro nations got together to make rules for dividing Africa. • European countries could claim areas in Africa if they notified other countries of their claim and could control the area. • Sizes of colonies/nations depended on raw materials in the land rather than consideration of African people

  11. Impact of Imperialism • Positives • Reduced local warfare • Hospitals, schools, increase literacy and life spans • Economic expansionism • Developed infrastructure

  12. Impact of Imperialism • Negatives • Africans lost control of their land and independence • New diseases - smallpox • Famines - movement to plantations/cash crops instead of growing own food • Breakdown of traditional culture • Artificial boundaries • Europeans put rival tribes in the same country and divided ethnic groups across national lines

  13. Imperialism: The Middle EastCauses • Waining power of Ottomans - losing influence in the area • Egypt • Egyptian debt from attempts to modernize such as building the Suez Canal • The strategic location of the canal for the British Empire - “Lifeline of the Empire” • Iran/Persia and Afghanistan • Oil • Buffer between Russia and India

  14. Suez Canal

  15. The Middle East: Effects • Positives • Money available to build up economy, technology, infrastructure - Suez Canal • Negatives • Egyptian rulers increased cash crops which led to a decrease in peasant control of the land and food supply • Corrupt rulers in Iran who sold concessions to Europe to try and protect themselves • Increased resentment of European/Western powers by middle eastern peoples (Growth of religious based movements to push out western powers) • Placed countries as buffer zones between world powers - Ex. Afghanistan

  16. India: Causes if Imperialism • Weakness of the Mughals led to power vacuum • British East India Company began to rule the area using “sepoys” - Indian soldiers led by British commander • Large supply of raw materials and markets for goods

  17. India: Effects of Imperialism • Positives • Railroads established - led to modern economy and greater unity • Modern roads, telephone, dams, bridges, improved sanitation • Schools, increased literacy • End to local warfare • “Jewel in the Crown” - most valuable colony to Great Britain

  18. India: Effects of Imperialism • Negatives • British set up restrictions so India could only sell raw materials to Britain and buy British goods • Prohibited Indian finished goods • Increase in plantation crops - tea, indigo, coffee, cotton, jute, opium - loss of self sufficiency and increased famines • Indian traditional life threatened - missionary activity and racism

  19. Southeast Asia: Causes of Imperialism • Perfect environment for plantation agriculture - sugar cane, coffee, cocoa, rubber, coconuts, bananas, pineapple • Resources - oil and tin • Location between India and China

  20. Southeast Asia: Impacts • Positives • Growing economies based on cash crops and goods • Roads, harbors, rail systems - improved communication and transportation • Education, health, sanitation improved • Unification of areas

  21. Southeast Asia: Impacts • Negatives • Large migration of people from other areas of Asia to work on plantations and in mines • Changed cultural and racial makeup of the area • Led to racial and religious classes

  22. Imperialistic Control • How do these European countries govern these new areas halfway across the world?

  23. Types of Imperial Control:Indirect Control • Local government officials used • Limited self-rule • Goal: develop future leaders • Government institutions based on European styles but may have local rules Indirect Forms of Imperialism: Protectorate Sphere of Influence Economic Imperialism

  24. Types of Imperial Control:Direct Control • Foreign officials brought in to rule • No self-rule • Goal: assimilation • Government institutions based only on European styles Direct Forms of Imperialism: Colonies

  25. Wars of Imperialism: • Crimean War • Sepoy Rebellion • Opium Wars • Boxer Rebellion • Russo - Japanese War