ch 9 jacksonian america
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Ch. 9 Jacksonian America. Missouri Compromise. Brought issue of slavery to forefront, whether to end the spread altogether or place parameters on it began the true regional divide between north and south. Missouri applied for statehood, but wanted slavery.

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missouri compromise
Missouri Compromise
  • Brought issue of slavery to forefront, whether to end the spread altogether or place parameters on it
    • began the true regional divide between north and south.
  • Missouri applied for statehood, but wanted slavery.
    • Northern states apposed this since it would throw off balance of slave vs. free states.
  • Compromise – Maine admitted as free state, Missouri as slave state. Henceforth, 36-30 line would serve as divide between future slave and free states.
monroe doctrine
Monroe Doctrine
  • In 1815 the U.S. declared neutrality in conflicts between European powers and colonies of Central and South America.
    • However, the U.S. became the first to formally recognize them as separate nations
    • Did so mainly to protect their status as trade partners.
  • Monroe Doctrine formally declared the U.S. neutral in all European affairs, but stated any attack in the Western Hemisphere would be viewed as an act of war.
  • Significance – established U.S. as predominant power of Western Hemisphere.
election of 1824 and corrupt bargain
Election of 1824 and Corrupt Bargain
  • Three Major Candidates:
    • Andrew Jackson, John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay
    • After Election Jackson had 99 votes, Adams 84, Crawford was third and Clay was out.
    • None obtained a majority of votes so the House of Representatives would have to decide.
  • Clay used his influence to sway support towards Adams and he won
    • Once in office, Adams selected Clay as Secretary of State.
    • Led Jackson supporters to suspect fowl play in the elections and thus calling the ordeal a “corrupt bargain”.
jackson as the people s president
Jackson as the People’s President
  • Jackson had made his name in the military, especially fighting indians on the frontier.
    • While technically belonging to a frontier aristocrat society, he and his followers had emerged from humble beginnings.
    • Their primary objective was to fight the traditionally powerful northeastern merchant class and protect opportunities for people like themselves.
  • Jacksonian followers did little to extend the rights of minority groups like slaves and women, and aggressively dealt with natives.
extension of rights
Extension of Rights
  • Until now only white males that owned property and paid taxes could vote.
  • Many new states included provisions in their constitutions granted all adult males suffrage.
  • Many northern aristocratic groups fought these measures, but eventually most adopted some form of democratization.
    • Dorr Rebellion: issue actually caused a heated debate in Rhode Island where a group called the Dorrites tried to seize control of the government.
the two party system
The Two Party System
  • Began primarily in New York with Martin Van Buren forming alternative political party to rival control held by Governor De Witt Clinton.
  • Was decided two political parties were essential to ensure that politicians carried out the will of people.
  • Followers of Jackson eventually became known as the Democrats (the modern day Democratic Party).
  • Anti-Jackson group took the name of Whigs, in reference to revolutionary group that stood against tyranny.
spoils system national conventions
Spoils System & National Conventions
  • Many leaders in Federal government had been in office for decades
    • Jackson and his followers set out to remove what he considered an aristocratic elite.
    • He removed roughly 1/5 of all federal officials and replaced them with people he approved (similar to Jefferson’s removal of Federalists when he took office)
    • Spoils system is short for the saying “to the victor goes the spoils” – the President has the right to select his own aids.
  • Also, Democratic Party held the first national conventions to select party candidates for election
    • Intended to give more power back to the people in selection.
calhoun nullification
Calhoun & Nullification
  • Calhoun was from South Carolina and had strongly favored tariffs under John Adams to protect American interests.
    • Unfortunately, the economy of his home state was impacted more adversely than any other.
  • To save face with his constituent Calhoun proposed an idea first designed by Jefferson and Madison
    • Nullification would allow states to vote and declare an act of Congress unconstitutional without Judicial approval.
nullification and westward expansion
Nullification and Westward Expansion
  • Webster – Hayne Debate
    • Robert Hayne, Senator from S. Carolina: challenged northern authority when they tried to slow the spread of American territory through new lands.
      • Hayne believed these new lands would help combat the authority of established northern elite class.
    • Daniel Webster, Senator from Massachusetts: attacked Hayne and Calhoun regarding nullification and their outright defense of state rights over federal gov’t.
  • The heated debate raged on for days and created stronger regional divide within Congress.
nullification showdown
Nullification Showdown
  • S. Carolina selected Hayne as governor, Calhoun stepped down as Vice President and took his spot in Senate.
    • S. Carolina then immediately voted to nullify the high tariffs.
  • Jackson proclaimed this as treason and proposed a force bill that would allow him to meet any resistance with military might.
  • Henry Clay proposed a compromise to steadily bring down tariffs and appease people of S. Carolina
    • With no other state coming to their aide they backed off and proved they could not secede or fight gov’t alone.
indian removal
Indian Removal
  • Jackson’s feelings toward Native Americans was no secret.
    • He wanted to remove all eastern tribes west of the Mississippi.
    • Unfortunately, this was also popular view of many.
  • Five Peaceful Tribes of South Eastern America
    • Cherokee, Creek, Seminole, Chickasaw, Choctaw
    • Cherokee in particular had assimilated quite well to white society and had even re-established their own customs much like white farmers.
    • However, white settlers of the region pushed for legislation to remove many of the tribes to open lands.
indian removal cont
Indian Removal Cont.
  • Jackson aggressively supported the removal acts personally sent representatives to hastily force through hundreds of treaties with several nations.
  • Cherokee Nation v. Georgia & Worcester v. Georgia
    • Cherokee nation filed law suits through the Supreme Court for defense against Jackson’s onslaught.
    • Courts ruled in favor of Cherokees, but Jackson challenged the case.
  • Signed an agreement with minority of Cherokees and then forced them all to leave at bayonet point.
    • The treaty ceded all of the tribes lands for $5 Million.
trail of tears
Trail of Tears
  • A small group of Cherokees fled to North Carolina where they found refuge in reservations.
  • Most were forced on a winter March to the Indian Territory (later Oklahoma) where thousands would die of starvation, exhaustion, or froze to death.
  • They removed them to this area because it was the edge of the “Great American Desert” and they felt whites would never want to settle there anyway.
    • Eventually, only the Seminoles of Florida were able to resist the Indian Removal Acts.
    • A significant minority under Osceola managed to use guerrilla tactics in Everglades to resist military actions.
  • In the end the Natives ceded over 100 million acres of land for $68 Million.
  • They received 32 million acres of land that was deemed uninhabitable by most
    • Nothing like their homeland.
jackson vs the bank
Jackson vs. the Bank
  • When it came to economic issues, Jackson was strongly opposed to Federal gov’t. control
    • Believed Federal gov’t gave too much power to “aristocrats”.
  • Bank of U.S. – luxurious headquarters in Philadelphia, branches in 29 separate cities, federal government owned 1/5 of stock in the bank.
    • In short, it was the largest financial institution in the U.S. by far.
opposition to the banks
Opposition to the Banks
  • “Soft Money” Group – wanted more money in circulation, even bank notes unsupported by gold or silver.
    • Predominantly bankers of smaller state banks.
  • “Hard Money” Group – more traditional bankers who felt all money should be founded on a gold or silver standard.
    • Suspicious of expansion and speculation that took place.
    • Jackson was a Hard Money advocate.
    • Had lost his business and fell to debt because of Panic of 1797 and had negative view of large banks.
bank undone
Bank Undone
  • Jackson had made it well known he intended to let the bank expire when charter ran out in 1836.
  • Nicholas Biddle, President of the bank, began using financial influence to gain support from Congress to renew charters.
    • Biddle’s friends convinced him to place issue before Congress in 1832 instead, so that it would be topic of debate for the national elections that year.
    • Vote, passed, Jackson vetoed it, and it became a primary issue for 1832 elections.
election of 1832 and banks
Election of 1832 and Banks
  • Henry Clay ran with the bank as his major plank and lost overwhelmingly to Jackson.
  • With new found support Jackson sought to diminish power of the Bank by removing gov’t funds and placing them in selected state banks “pet banks”.
    • When Secretaries of Treasury refused he fired them until he hired a friend that would comply.
biddle s response
Biddle’s Response
  • Began calling in government loans and raising interest rates, causing economic crisis.
  • Citizens and politicians begged Jackson to repeal his stance, but became personal battle between him and Biddle.
  • Eventually Biddle raised the rates so far that it hurt even his allies, and he lost support.
  • Jackson won his war with the bank, but had diminished the nation’s economic stability drastically.
jackson s kitchen cabinet
Jackson’s Kitchen Cabinet
  • Jackson was well known to have a select “inner circle” that influenced much of the decision making.
  • This close group of friends and supporters became known as his “Kitchen Cabinet”
examples of the kitchen cabinet
Examples of the Kitchen Cabinet
  • Rise of Martin Van Buren
    • Former Governor of N.Y and Secretary of State under Jackson.
    • Rumors circulated regarding marital issues and infidelity of Jackson’s friend John Eaton and a prominent Washington woman.
    • When they finally married, Jackson made him Sec. of War and they were an official “Cabinet Couple”.
    • Calhoun renounced the couple, infuriating Jackson, meanwhile Van Buren embraced them and endeared himself to Jackson
      • Thus Jackson selected Van Buren as his successor, not Calhoun
kitchen cabinet examples
Kitchen Cabinet Examples
  • Roger B. Taney
    • Initially Jackson’s Attorney General, was selected Sec. of Treasury after previous two refused to follow Jackson’s orders regarding the Bank of U.S.
    • When John Marshall died in 1835, he was selected as Supreme Court Chief Justice, by Jackson.
      • From the bench his rulings reflected the wishes of Jackson and the Democratic Party.
      • Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge – interesting court case where Taney sided with a smaller company to revoke a state charter in Massachusetts and set precedent to help open competition to smaller companies.