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In Service Training University of Florida IFAS March 12, 2013. Whiteflies . IST Organizers. Catharine Mannion , Tropical Research and Education Center Lance Osborne , Mid-Florida Research and Education Center William Schall , Palm Beach County Extension

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Presentation Transcript
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In Service Training

University of Florida IFAS

March 12, 2013

Whiteflies

ist organizers
IST Organizers
  • Catharine Mannion, Tropical Research and Education Center
  • Lance Osborne, Mid-Florida Research and Education Center
  • William Schall, Palm Beach County Extension
  • Eileen Buss, Dept. of Entomology and Nematology
whiteflies
Whiteflies
  • Whiteflies are NOTflies
  • Piercing-sucking mouthparts – both adults and nymphs feed
  • Excrete honeydew
  • Some species transmit viruses
  • Some species produce waxy substances
  • Host range – single to multiple hosts
adult whiteflies
Adult Whiteflies
  • Small, white, “moth-like” in appearance

Photo: H. Glenn, UF/IFAS

whitefly nymphs
Whitefly Nymphs
  • More variable in appearance than adults
  • Resemble “scale insects”

Photo: H. Glenn, UF/IFAS

whitefly introductions
Whitefly Introductions

2007 - Ficus Whitefly

2009 – Rugose Spiraling Whitefly

2011 – Bondar’s

Nesting Whitefly

Photo: H. Glenn, UF/IFAS

ficus whitefly singhiella simplex hemiptera aleyrodidae
Ficus WhiteflySinghiella simplex (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)
  • Only feeds on ficus species
  • Introduced in 2007

Photo: H. Glenn, UF/IFAS

Photo: A. Roda, USDA APHIS

ficus whitefly damage
Ficus Whitefly - Damage
  • Causes leaf yellowing
  • Leaf drop (severe)
  • Branch dieback (highly variable)

Photo: H. Glenn, and C. Mannion, UF/IFAS

ficus whitefly life cycle
Ficus WhiteflyLife Cycle

Adult Whitefly

(2-4 days)

Eggs

(10 days)

Constant temperature (80º F)

*2nd

4th instar – puparia

(5.8 days)

1st instar – crawler

(4.2 days)

*3rd

2nd-3rd instars – nymphs

2nd instar – 3.7 days; 3rd instar – 3. 3 days

Photo: H. Glenn, UF/IFAS

ficus whitefly immature stages
Ficus Whitefly Immature Stages
  • The immature stages (typically found on the underside of leaves) tend to be flat, oval and can vary in color or transparent
  • The pupal case is often one of the most visible stages

Photo: H. Glenn, UF/IFAS

natural enemies observed i n the landscape
Natural Enemies Observed in the Landscape

Encarsia protransvena

Amitus bennetti

Harmonia axyridis

Olla v-nigrum

Exochomus childreni

Chilocorus nigritis

Curinus coeruleus

Photo: H. Glenn, UF/IFAS

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2009

2010

Mean Number Live Adults per Sticky Trap

2011

2012

2013

current situation ficus whitefly
Current SituationFicus Whitefly
  • Spreading and increasing in other areas (moving North) but will be limited by its host plant (ficus)
  • Numerous natural enemies established
  • Nuisance “factor”
    • Loss of aesthetics and privacy (ficus)
    • Overall hysteria – leads to bad decisions
  • Heavy reliance on systemic insecticides
  • “Ficus” decline
  • Whitefly populations are decreasing in some initial areas
continued ficus decline
Continued Ficus Decline

Whiteflies Present

  • Insecticide Resistance
  • Viruses/bacteria/toxins
  • Low use rates
  • Drought or other environmental conditions

Whiteflies Not Present

  • Cumulative stress
  • Nutrition
  • Disease
    • Phomopsis and Diaporthe – cause branch dieback under stress conditions
gumbo limbo spiraling whitefly aleurodicus rugioperculatus
Rugose Spiraling WhiteflyGumbo Limbo Spiraling WhiteflyAleurodicus rugioperculatus
  • First found in Miami on gumbo limbo, Bursera simaruba,Spring 2009
  • Known in Belize, Mexico and Guatemala
  • Adult is relatively large and docile
  • Produces excessive honeydew and wax

Photo: H. Glenn, UF/IFAS

white waxy substance
White, waxy substance

Photo: H. Glenn, UF/IFAS

honeydew and sooty mold
Honeydew and sooty mold

Photos: H. Glenn and C. Mannion UF/IFAS

honeydew and sooty mold1
Honeydew and sooty mold

Photos: K. Gabel, Monroe County Extension and C. Mannion and UF/IFAS

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Eggs

Rugose

Spiraling

Whitefly

1st Instar

Adult

2nd Instar

4th Instar

3rd Instar

Photo: H. Glenn, UF/IFAS

host plants for rugose spiraling whitefly
Host Plants for Rugose Spiraling Whitefly
  • At least 90 different host species (34 plant families)
  • 60% of samples sent for ID are from 9 host plants
    • Gumbo limbo (17%)
    • Coconut (10%)
    • Calophyllum spp. (10%)
    • Avocado (9%)
    • Black olive (5%)
    • Pigmy date palm (3%)
    • Bird of Paradise(2%)
    • Christmas palm (2%)
    • Mango (2%)
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Parasitoids Identified
  • Encarsia guadaloupae
  • Encarsia noyesii
  • Aleuroctonus sp.

Predator Identified

  • Nephaspis oculata
  • Well established in Florida for > 25 years
current situation gumbo limbo spiraling whitefly
Current SituationGumbo Limbo Spiraling Whitefly
  • Whitefly populations are increasing and spreading
  • A couple of natural enemies established
    • Ongoing efforts for new natural enemies and release systems
  • Nuisance “factor”
    • Loss of aesthetics – “messy” situation
    • Affecting pools, ponds etc.
    • Tree removal
    • Overall hysteria – leads to bad decisions
  • Heavy reliance on systemic insecticides
bondar s nesting whitefly paraleyrodes bondari
Bondar’s Nesting WhiteflyParaleyrodes bondari
  • First detected in Dec 2011
  • Three other species known in Florida
  • Not known as economic pest
  • Often seen with Rugose spiraling whitefly

Photo: H. Glenn, UF/IFAS

bondar s nesting whitefly
Bondar’s Nesting Whitefly
  • White wax
  • Honeydew
  • Sooty mold
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Bondar’s Nesting Whitefly

Nymphs

Whitefly “nest”

Photo: H. Glenn, UF/IFAS

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Not whitefly

Powdery Mildew

Photo: H. Glenn, UF/IFAS

natural enemies
Natural Enemies
  • Wasp parasitoid, Encarsia variegata
  • Beetle predator, Nephaspis oculata

Photo: H. Glenn, UF/IFAS

current situation
Current Situation
  • Impact of this whitefly is unknown
  • Commonly found on ficus
  • Often found in association with other whiteflies (i.e. particularly Rugose spiraling whitefly)
  • Some natural enemies identified
  • Nuisance “factor”
    • Typically not as messy as Rugose spiraling whitefly
  • Heavy reliance on systemic insecticides