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Unit 2: Nervous System. Hearing Notes. (1) Ear Design. Ear is like a well designed funnel. Sound waves spiral down into auditory canal. Sound Waves smack against ear drum (tympanic membrane). (2) Vibrations. Sound Waves  Tympanic Membrane Eardrum literally like the leather on a drum

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1 ear design
(1) Ear Design
  • Ear is like a well designed funnel.
  • Sound waves spiral down into auditory canal.
  • Sound Waves smack against ear drum (tympanic membrane).
2 vibrations
(2) Vibrations
  • Sound Waves  Tympanic Membrane
    • Eardrum literally like the leather on a drum
  • T-Membrane  Hammer  Anvil  Stirrup
    • Hammer, Anvil and Stirrup are very small bones in inner ear
  • Stirrup  Oval Window  Inner Ear Fluid
3 cochlea
(3) Cochlea
  • Cochlea = Snail like structure in inner Ear.
  • Contains Organ of Corti:
    • Contains hearing receptors / hair cells
    • Hair cells stimulated by movement of Inner Ear Fluid
  • Basilar Membrane
    • Type of membrane on specific receptors
    • Responds to changes in pitch
  • Fluid  Receptors  Cochlear Nerve  Brain
4 equilibrium balance
(4) Equilibrium & Balance
  • Your ears keep track of your body’s position.
  • Equilibrium receptors lie within the inner ear of your ears (Vestibular Apparati).
  • 2 Types of Equilibrium:
    • Static
    • Dynamic
5 static equilibrium
(5) Static Equilibrium
  • Head Balance
  • Static Receptors = Maculae:
    • On top of maculae lies the otolithic membrane (gel-like)
    • Head Moves  Otoliths Moves!
    • Movement of Otolithic  Receptor  Impulse to Vestibular Nerve & Brain
  • Tells your brain when your head is not upright.
6 dynamic equilibrium
(6) Dynamic Equilibrium
  • Rotation & Angles of Head
  • Semicircular Canals of Cochlea:
    • Contain receptors = Crista Ampullari
    • Crista Ampullari contain receptor hairs, endolymph fluid and a capula cap
    • Body Movement  endolymph movement  Push on Capula Cap  Receptor Hairs  Vestibular Nerve & Brain
7 motion sickness
(7) Motion Sickness
  • Inefficient dynamic equilibrium…
    • Semicircular Canals either too sensitive or too slow at sending messages
  • Too many visual messages
  • Too many inner ear messages
  • Visual conflicts with Inner Ear
  • Unique to each individual
8 deafness
(8) Deafness
  • Deaf= Any hearing loss
  • Types:
    • Conduction
    • Sensorineural
9 conduction deafness
(9) Conduction Deafness
  • Something Blocks Tympanic Membrane
  • Sound Waves cannot reach Ear Drum + Inner Ear
  • Causes:
    • Ear Wax
    • Ruptured Ear Drum
    • Injured Hammer, Anvil and/or Stirrup
  • Usually Temporary, Solved by Surgery
10 sensorineural deafness
(10) Sensorineural Deafness
  • Damage to actual parts of ears:
    • Receptor Cells
    • Cochlea
    • Vestibular Nerve
  • Can be hereditary, damage from disease/virus, damage from loud noises
  • Often permanent