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Biological Beginnings. The Evolutionary Perspective Genetic Foundations of Development Heredity and Environment interaction: The Nature-Nurture Debate Prenatal Development Birth. The Evolutionary Perspective. The Evolutionary Perspective.

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biological beginnings

Biological Beginnings

The Evolutionary Perspective

Genetic Foundations of Development

Heredity and Environment interaction:

The Nature-Nurture Debate

Prenatal Development

Birth

the evolutionary perspective

The Evolutionary Perspective

The Evolutionary Perspective
  • Natural selection and adaptive behavior
    • Darwin and his observations
    • All organisms must adapt in life
  • Evolutionary psychology
    • Emphasizes adaptation, reproduction,

and survival of the fittest in shaping behavior

    • Evolution explains human physical features

and behaviors

the evolutionary perspective1

The Evolutionary Perspective

The Evolutionary Perspective
  • Natural selection and adaptive behavior
    • Darwin and his observations
    • All organisms must adapt in life
  • Evolutionary psychology
    • Emphasizes adaptation, reproduction,

and survival of the fittest in shaping behavior

    • Evolution explains human physical features and behaviors
evolutionary developmental psychology

The Evolutionary Perspective

Evolutionary Developmental Psychology
  • Explaining humans and their behavior
    • Larger brains and more complex societies
    • Takes longest of all mammals to mature
    • Some evolved mechanisms of adaptation not compatible with modern society
evolution and life span development

The Evolutionary Perspective

Evolution and Life-Span Development
  • Benefits of evolutionary selection decrease with age
  • Natural selection failures: harmful conditions and non-adaptivecharacteristics
  • As adults weaken biologically, culture-based needs increase
  • Alternative: ‘bi-directional view’
slide6

The Evolutionary Perspective

Baltes’ view of evolution and culture across the life span

evaluating evolutionary psychology

The Evolutionary Perspective

Evaluating Evolutionary Psychology
  • Remains just one theoretical approach.
  • Evolution does not dictate behavior.
  • Biology allows broad range of cultural possibilities.
genetic foundations of development

Genetic Foundations

Genetic Foundations of Development
  • DNA and the collaborative gene
    • DNA — deoxyribonucleic acid
    • Chromosomes — thread-like structures
    • Genes — units of hereditary information
  • Human Genome Project
    • 30,000 genes in humans
cells chromosomes genes and dna

Genetic Foundations

Cells, Chromosomes, Genes, and DNA

Nucleus (center of cell) contains chromosomes and genes

Gene: a segment of DNA (spiraled double chain) containing the hereditary code

Chromosomes are threadlike structures composed of DNA molecules

the collaborative gene

Genetic Foundations

The Collaborative Gene
  • Genes and chromosomes
    • Mitosis — cell nucleus duplicates
    • Meiosis — cell division forms gametes
    • Fertilization — egg and sperm form zygote
    • Genetic variability in the population
    • X and Y chromosomes determine sex
the collaborative gene1

Genetic Foundations

The Collaborative Gene
  • Genes and chromosomes
    • Identical and fraternal twins
    • Mutated gene
    • Genotype — all of one’s genetic makeup
    • Phenotype — observable characteristics
genetic principles

Genetic Foundations

Genetic Principles
  • Dominant and recessive genes
  • Sex-linked genes
    • X-linked inheritance for males and females
  • Genetic imprinting
    • Imprinted gene dominates
  • Poly-genetically determined characteristics
    • Many genes interact to influence a trait
slide13

Genetic Foundations

Brown hair

B

How brown-haired parents can have a blond-haired child: the gene for blond hair is recessive

Blond hair

b

Father

B b

Mother

B b

B B

B b

B b

b b

genetic principles1

Genetic Foundations

Genetic Principles
  • Chromosome abnormalities
    • Down syndrome
  • Sex-linked chromosome abnormalities
    • Klinefelter syndrome
    • Fragile X syndrome
    • Turner syndrome
    • XYY syndrome
sex linked chromosome abnormalities

KlinefelterSyndrome

Males have an extra X chromosome

Fragile X syndrome

Abnormality in the X chromosome

Turner syndrome

Females missing an X chromosome

XYY syndrome

Males have an extra Y chromosome

Genetic Foundations

Sex-Linked Chromosome Abnormalities
gene linked abnormalities

Genetic Foundations

Gene-Linked Abnormalities
  • PKU: phenylketonuria
  • Sickle-cell anemia
  • Cystic fibrosis
  • Diabetes
  • Hemophilia
  • Genetic disorders can sometimes be compensated for by other genes or events
nature nurture debate

Heredity, Environment, and Individual Differences

Nature-Nurture Debate
  • Behavior Genetics
    • Studies influence of heredity and environment on individual differences
  • Studies use twins or adoptees
    • Monozygotic and dizygotic twins
    • Adoption study: examine behavior and psychological characteristics
heredity environment correlations

Heredity, Environment, and Individual Differences

Heredity-Environment Correlations
  • In infancy, environment mostly controlled by parents
  • As children age, their experiences extend more beyond the family’s influence
  • Shared environments are analyzed
    • Commonalities between children attributed to heredity-environment interaction
heredity environment correlations1

Heredity, Environment, and Individual Differences

Heredity-Environment Correlations
  • Passive genotype-environment correlations
  • Evocative genotype-environment correlations
  • Active (niche-picking) genotype-environment correlations
heredity environment correlations2

Heredity, Environment, and Individual Differences

Heredity-Environment Correlations
  • In infancy, environment mostly controlled by parents
  • As children age, their experiences extend more beyond the family’s influence
  • Shared environments are analyzed
    • Commonalities between children attributed to

heredity-environment interaction

the course of prenatal development

Prenatal Development

The Course of Prenatal Development
  • Germinal period: 2 weeks after conception
  • Embryonic period: 2 to 8 weeks after conception
    • Three layers: endodem, mesoderm, ectoderm
    • Umbilical cord connect to placenta
    • Organogenesis
  • Fetal period
    • From 2 months after conception to birth
    • Trimesters of pregnancy
slide23

Prenatal Development

0 - 4 weeks

Less than 1/10th of inch long

First trimester

8 weeks

Less than 1 inch long

12 weeks

3 inches long, wt: 1 ounce

16 weeks

5.5 inches long, wt: 4 ounces

Second trimester

20 weeks

10-12 inches, wt: ½ -1 lbs

24 weeks

11-14 inches, wt: 1-1½ lbs

28 weeks

14-17 inches, wt: 2½ -3 lbs

Third trimester

32 weeks

16½ -18 inches, wt: 4-5 lbs

36-38 weeks

19 inches, wt: 6 lbs

The three trimesters of prenatal development

prenatal diagnostic tests

Prenatal Development

Prenatal Diagnostic Tests
  • Ultrasound sonography
  • Chorionic villi sampling: small sample of placenta taken
  • Amniocentesis: samples amniotic fluid
  • Maternal blood test
the brain

Prenatal Development

The Brain
  • Neurons – 100 billion
  • Birth defects and neural tube
  • Neuronal migration occurs
hazards to prenatal development

Prenatal Development

Hazards to Prenatal Development
  • Teratogen: agent causing birth defects
  • Severity of damage affected by
    • Dose
    • Genetic susceptibility
    • Time of exposure
  • Effects of prescription and

nonprescription drugs

slide27

Prenatal Development

Teratogens and Timing of Their Effects on Prenatal Development

hazards to prenatal development1

Prenatal Development

Hazards to Prenatal Development
  • Psychoactive drugs
    • Caffeine
    • Alcohol and fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
    • Nicotine’s link to SIDS, ADHD, low birth weight
    • Effect of father’s smoking
    • Cocaine, marijuana, and heroin
    • Methamphetamine
  • Environmental hazards and pollutants
hazards to prenatal development2

Prenatal Development

Hazards to Prenatal Development
  • Incompatible blood types of parents
    • Rh-positive and Rh-negative
    • Maternal diseases like German measles, syphilis, HIV and AIDS
  • Other prenatal factors
    • Nutrition, prenatal education and care
    • Maternal age and risks
    • Maternal emotional states and stress
    • Paternal factors
    • Environmental factors
prenatal care

Birth

Prenatal Care
  • Prenatal programs
    • Education
    • Medical care
    • Social and nutritional services
    • Low birth weight and infant mortality rates
    • View of pregancy vary among cultures

and ethnic groups

the birth process

Birth

The Birth Process
  • Stages of birth: occurs in three stages
    • Uterine contractions
    • Baby’s head moves through birth canal
    • Afterbirth when placenta, umbilical cord,

and other membranes are detached

and expelled

  • Baby must withstand stress of birth
strategies for childbirth

Birth

Strategies for Childbirth
  • Deciding what setting, who attends, and what technique will be used
  • Home delivery, birthing center, or hospital?
  • 99% of all U.S. births occur in hospitals
  • Home births more common outside U.S.
    • Doula as caregiver
  • Role of midwife, nurse, and physician
methods of delivery

Birth

Methods of Delivery
  • Medication with analgesics (epidural block, oxytocics, etc.)
  • Possible effects of drugs on fetus
  • Natural childbirth
  • Prepared childbirth and the Lamaze method
  • Cesarean sections for breech babies,

other risks and benefits

methods of delivery1

Birth

Methods of Delivery
  • Nonmedicated techniques
    • Waterbirth more in European countries
    • Massage reduces pain and anxiety
    • Acupuncture is standard in China
    • Hypnosis has some positive effects
    • Music therapy reduces stress, manages pain
assessing the newborn

Birth

Assessing the Newborn
  • Apgar Scale: heart, reflexes, and color
  • Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (BNBAS)
    • A sensitive index of neurological competence
    • Four categories in global terms
  • Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS)
    • Analysis of behavior, neurological and stress responses, and regulatory capacities
slide36

Birth

The Apgar Scale

low birth weight and preterm

Birth

Low Birth Weight and Preterm
  • Low birth weight infants in U.S. and world
    • Weigh less than 5.5 lbs
    • Very low birth weight: less than 3 lbs
    • Preterm infants: 35 or fewer weeks after conception (about 12% of U.S. births)
    • Small-for-date infants: weigh less than they should
    • Ethnic variations characterize preterm birth
  • Causes and consequences
low birth weight and preterm1

Birth

Low Birth Weight and Preterm
  • Low birth weight infants in U.S. and world
    • Weigh less than 5.5 lbs
    • Very low birth weight: less than 3 lbs
    • Preterm infants: 35 or fewer weeks after conception (about 12% of U.S. births)
    • Small-for-date infants: weigh less than they should
    • Ethnic variations characterize preterm birth
  • Causes and consequences
kangaroo care and massage therapy

Birth

Kangaroo Care and Massage Therapy
  • Kangaroo care
    • Holds infant to promote skin-to-skin contact between infant and caregiver
    • Can promote
      • Better breathing
      • Longer sleep periods
      • Weight gain
      • Less crying
      • Longer periods of alertness
tiffany field s research on massage therapy

Birth

Tiffany Field’s Research on Massage Therapy
  • Massage therapy led to 47% greater weight gain for preterm infants
  • Also demonstrated benefits of massage for
    • Labor pain
    • Asthma
    • ADHD
    • Arthritis
    • Autistic children
slide41

Birth

Weight Gain Comparison of Premature Infants Who Were Massaged and Not Massaged

bonding

Birth

Bonding
  • Needs to occur shortly after birth
  • Early emotional attachments may create healthy interactions after leaving hospital
  • Rooming-in arrangements offered
  • Massages and tactile stimulation for premature infants affect development