An Introduction to European Culture Lecture 3 The Bible and Christianity
The Bible and Christianity • History of the Hebrews • Judaism and Christianity • The Bible ---The Old Testament • Rise & Spread of Christianity • The Bible ---The New Testament • The Translation of the Bible
Lead-in • Does Christianity influence you in any way? • Have you ever been to a Christian church? • Do you know the masterpiece of Da Vinci The Last Supper? • Can you tell the following stories? • Noah's Ark, • The Birth of Jesus, • Jesus Is Tempted by the Devil,
Part One: History of the Hebrews • I.Canaan(迦南), the promised land • II. Exodus【圣】《出埃及记》 • III. The Torah (律法) • IV. The Kings《列王纪》 • V. Collapse of Kingdom • VI. Conquest by the Romans
I.Canaan(迦南), the promised land • 迦南(《圣经》故事中称其为上帝赐给以色列人祖先的"应许之地",是巴勒斯坦,叙利亚和黎巴嫩等地的古称) • The Hebrews (ancestors of the Jews): • Descendants of wandering tribes of Semites闪米特人 in the Near East, hence, called Hebrews,” which means “wanderers;” • After much wandering, the Hebrews under Abraham, settled in lower Canaan; • With the rough and dry climate Palestine proved to be unfit for living ; • →toward the fertile Nile Delta(三角州)
Palestine, showing the Kingdoms of Judah and Israel, and their traditional enemies, the Philistines. The Phoenicians were a seafaring nation, who founded Carthage and other towns on the North African coast.
II. Exodus【圣】《出埃及记》 • Inabout 1750 B.C. Egypt was invaded by the Hyksos喜克索人, also Semites. Hebrews enjoyed some prosperity in Egypt. • The Hyksos were expelled from Egypt, the Hebrews had to pay the price of their kinship: • They were enslaved • In about 1250 B.C. Moses, a new religious leader, determined to lead his people back to Cannan for a better life. This movement back towards Canaan is called the Exodus • Significance: creating the feeling of national unity for the first time.
III. The Torah (律法, 圣经旧约之首五卷) • Moses’ formulation of laws and establishment of religious principles : • Ten Commandments • → dictated to him by God to the people in the Sinai ['saɪnaɪ] (圣经)西奈desert • Over the centuries the Hebrews developed a whole moral and practical code of living: the Torah • → The basis of this is found in Pentateuch (the first five books of the Old Testament: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy) • Moses, however, died before the Hebrews actually reached Canaan.
IV. The Kings《列王纪》 • The Hebrew settlers ran into trouble with the other peoples who had been living in Canaan,esp. the Philistines • Samson(参孙）led the Hebrews to score victory against the Philistines。 • After Samson‘s death Saul（扫罗） set up the first royal dynasty of the Hebrews. • Saul was succeeded by his son-in-law David(大卫） in about 1010 B.C. • David was succeeded by his son Solomon（所罗门）in 970 B.C.
Samson and Delilah by Lucas Cranach • Delilah cuts Samson's hair, by Master E. S., 1460/1465
Samson destroys the temple of Dagon, 1890 Bible illustration • Samson in the Treadmill, by Carl Heinrich Bloch
King Saul----King of Israel David Plays the Harp for Saul, by Rembrandt
Saul (1079 BC – 1007 BC) • was the first king of the united Kingdom of Israel (reigned 1049 BC – 1007 BC) according to the Hebrew Bible. • He was anointed by the prophet Samuel and reigned from Gibeah. • He suicidally fell on his sword in battle against the Philistines at Mount Gilboa, during which three of his sons were also killed. • The succession to his throne was contested by Ish-bosheth, his only surviving son, and David, who eventually prevailed. • The main account of Saul's life and reign is found in the Books of Samuel.
David and Saul (1885) by Julius Kronberg. "Death of King Saul", 1848 by Elie Marcuse (Germany and France, 1817-1902)
Statue of David by Nicolas Cordier, in the basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore, Rome Reign over Judah c.1010 - 1003 BC; over Judah and Israel c. 1003 - 970 BC Bornc. 1040 BC Birthplace Bethlehem Diedc. 970 BC Place of death Jerusalem Predecessor Saul (Judah), Ish-bosheth (Israel) Successor Solomon King David---King of Israel
David hoists the severed head of Goliath by Gustave Doré A Philistine army invades Judah. They face the Israelites, under King Saul, in the Valley of Elah. The boy David is bringing food to his older brothers who are with Saul. He hears the Philistine giant Goliath challenging the Israelites to send their own champion to decide the outcome in single combat. David tells Saul he is prepared to face Goliath and Saul allows him to make the attempt. He is victorious, striking Goliath in the forehead with a stone from his sling. Goliath falls, and David kills him with his own sword and beheads him; the Philistines flee in terror. Saul sends to know the name of the young champion, and David tells him that he is the son of Jesse. David and Goliath
Samuel anoints David, Dura Europos, Syria, Date: 3rd c. AD God withdrew his favor from Saul, king of Israel. It repented me that I have set up Saul to be king: for he is turned back from following me, and has not performed my commandments. The prophet Samuel seeks a new king from the sons of Jesse of Bethlehem. Seven of Jesse's sons pass before Samuel, but Samuel says "The LORD has not chosen these." He then asks "Are these all the sons you have?" and Jesse answers, "There is still the youngest but he is tending the sheep." David is brought to Samuel, and "the LORD said, 'Rise and anoint him; he is the one.'" David is chosen of God
"David Playing the Harp" by Jan de Bray, 1670 David the Musician
David the Musician • In various biblical passages, David is referred to as “the favorite of the songs of Israel,” the one who soothed Saul with music, and the founder of Temple singing. • A Psalms scroll from the Dead Sea Scrolls (11QPsa) attributes 3600 tehilim (songs of praise) plus other compositions to David. • Seventy-three of the 150 Psalms in the Bible are attributed to David. • The supreme kingship of Yahweh is the most pervasive theological concept in the book of Psalms, and many psalms attributed to David are directed to Yahweh by name, whether in praise or petition, suggesting a relationship. • According to the Midrash Tehillim, King David was prompted to the Psalms by the Holy Spirit that rested upon him.
The Anointing of Solomon by Cornelis de Vos. According to 1 Kings 1:39, Solomon was anointed by Zadok. Solomon became king after the death of his father King David. One of the qualities most ascribed to Solomon is his wisdom. He was also noted for his wealth. Succession of Solomon
Solomon • The Hebrew Bible credits Solomon as the builder of the First Temple in Jerusalem, and portrays him as great in wisdom, wealth, and power, but ultimately as a king whose sin, including idolatry偶像崇拜 and turning away from God, leads to the kingdom being torn in two during the reign of his son Rehoboam. • Solomon is the subject of many other later references and legends.
Artist's depiction of Solomon's court (Ingobertus, c. 880.) Judgment of SolomonNineteenth century engraving by Gustave Doré
V. Collapse of Kingdom • After Solomon‘s death the kingdom was divided into two unequal and independent parts - Israel with Samaria撒玛利亚 as the capital, and Judah(犹大), retaining Jerusalem • In 721 B.C. Israel was conquered by king of Assyria(亚述) • P.S.: 亚述：亚洲西部底格里河流域北部一帝国和文明古国。公元前 9世纪至7世纪，在它的强盛时期，亚述帝国的疆域从地中海跨越阿拉伯和亚美尼亚地区 • In 586 B.C. Judah was conquered by the Babylonian king, and lots of Jews were brought to Babylon as captives. This is the famous ”Babylonian captivity” • It was not untilCyrus the Great of Persia波斯（西南亚国家，现在的伊朗）conquered Babylon in 539 B.C. did the Jews regained some powers → self governance for five hundred years • P.S.: Persia波斯：西南亚一个强大的帝国，公元前 546年后由居鲁士二世建立。到了大流士一世和他儿子薛西斯时期，帝国达到全盛时期 。 公元前 334年亚历山大大帝征服了波斯 。后来的帝国由萨桑王朝建立( 公元 226-637年）
VI. Conquest by the Romans • In 70 B.C. the Roman emperor Titus took Jerusalem. • Following this the Jewish people dispersed and left their land to make a living as best they could in different countries throughout the world.
Part two :Judaism and Christianity • Similarities: • many common concepts and values • exchange of ideas over wide areas. • Differences: • Notion of God • The Messiah (David vs Jesus) • Sin and Original Sin • Salvation(超度，赎罪) and attaining an afterlife
Similarities : • Judaism and Christianity are closely related: • I. Christianity emerged from Judaism, hence there are many concepts and values held in common by Judaism and Christianity (the body of these concepts and values is also called Judeo-Christian tradition ): • Judeo-Christian tradition • i. Monotheism(一神论): Both religions reject atheism(无神论）, on the one hand, and polytheism (多神论）, on the other. • ii. Belief in a Messiah(救世主：犹太人所盼望的复国救主及犹太国王) • iii. Form of worship: including a priesthood(教士, 僧侣, 神父) concepts of sacred space and sacred time, the idea that worship here on Earth is patterned after worship in Heaven, and the use of the Psalms(圣歌)in community prayer. • II. Both originated in Palestine, which led to exchange of ideas over wide areas.
Differences: • I. Notion of God: • oneness vs trinitarianism:[基督教]三位一体论, 三位一体之教理) • By the notion of monotheism, • Judaism’s idea is that there is one God, and God is complete. • The Christian notion is that God is a trinity, made up of God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit.
II. The Messiah (David vs Jesus) • Jews believe that the messiah is a descendant of King David who will one day usher in a messianic era of peace and prosperity for Israel and all the nations of the world. The traditional Jewish understanding of the messiah is fully human, born of human parents, without any supernatural element. • Christians hold Jesus to be the messiah foretold in the Hebrew Bible. He is believed to be the son of God in a literal sense, fully human, and simultaneously divine, fully God. In this view, Jesus the messiah is the son of God who offers salvation to all humans.
III. Sin and Original Sin • Sin is the Christian idea that people make mistakes or offenses against God. • Original sin is the Christian idea that a newborn baby has guilt for sin before taking any action to offend God. • Jews have no concept of Original Sin, and do not accept it, for Judaism teaches that humans are born morally neutral ( Judaism affirms that people are born with a tendency towards goodness).
IV. Salvation(超度，赎罪) and attaining an afterlife • Judaism believes that sins can be atoned [ə'ton]赎罪 for through repentance [rɪ'pɛntəns]忏悔. • Most forms of Christianity teach that one can only be saved through the acceptance of Jesus as a saviour, and that repentance accomplishes nothing without belief in Jesus . • Read for more differences than have been mentioned.
Part three: The Bible Bible---The Old Testament • About the Bible • The Old Testament • ---The Pentateuch:（五经） • Genesis (《创世记》) • Exodus（《出埃及》） • Leviticus （《利未记》） • Numbers （《民数记》） • Deuteronomy （《申命记》）
3. The Bible ---The Old Testament • I. About the Bible • The Bible is made up of the Old Testament and the New Testament. • The Old Testament is about God and the laws of God, while the latter about the doctrines of Jesus Christ. • The word “testament” means “agreement” or “covenant”, namely, the agreement between God and Man.
It is not a single book, but a collection of 66 books, different in style, content, subject of matter, and point of view. • Not written by one person, but by many anonymously, some sections had existed orally before. • Not written within a single period of time: • Old Testament: 1,000 - 15 B.C. • New Testament: 50 – 150 A.D. • Not written in one language: • Old Testament : in Hebrew; • New Testament : in Greek partly in Aramaic (阿拉米语)
* Books in it are not systematically classified or chronologically arranged. * It contains words of God, an inspired and inspiring book an encyclopedia (poem, history, tale, moral teachings, etc.),* It is a book that was ordered to be burned, but survived every time.* It is a book translated into over 1,000 Ls and dialects.* Number One in terms of publication volume; greatly influencing European culture.
Classification of 66 books • Old Testament: (Hebrew History) 1. Law and history 2. Prophecies 3. Poetry, drama, tales, moral teachings • New Testament: (Life of Jesus Christ) 1. Gospels 2. Letters 3. Revelations • The central theme binding all books: Hebrew tradition written by, meant for and about Hebrews.
Genealogy[dʒinɪ'ælədʒɪ](族谱）Adam & Eve --- Noah 诺亚(Ark)---Abraham (to Canaan迦南) --- Moses 摩西(Exodus) ---Joshua （约书亚）(back to Canaan) --- split (many tribes)--- Saul 扫罗(unification) --- David 大卫(built Jerusalem) --- Solomon所罗门---split （犹太国&以色列国）
II. The Old Testament • 1) The Pentateuch:(五经） • the oldest and most important first five books of the Old Testament. • Genesis (《创世记》) • Exodus（《出埃及》） • Leviticus （《利未记》） • Numbers （《民数记》） • Deuteronomy （《申命记》）
i. Genesis: 《创世记》 • a religious account of the origin of the Hebrew people, including • the origin of the world and of man, • the career of Issac • the life of Jacob and his son Joseph.
a. The Fall of Man • God created the world in six days • →the Sabbath day (the seventh day) • Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden • →relationship between man & woman • Eve and Adam were tempted to eat the forbidden fruit by the serpent • God became angry and drove them out of the Paradise. • God’s anger: • → When God created man in His image, man is already like God. If man eats the fruit and thus has knowledge of good and evil he will be exactly the same as God.
Michelangelo's painting of the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel shows the creation of the sun, moon and earth as described in the first chapter of Genesis.
The couple hold apples and on the right the serpent is coiled round the Tree of Knowledge. “She took of the fruit and did eat, and gave also unto her husband with her; and he did eat.” Adam and Eve by the late Renaissance German painter Albr
God questions Adam and Eve about what they have done and Adam blames Eve. “The woman whom thou gavest to be with me, she gave me of the tree, and I did eat”. In this painting Domenichino has copied Michelangelo’s representation of God as he painted him in the Sistine Chapel giving life to Adam. She gave me of the tree and I did eat by the Italian painter Domenichino (Domenico Zampieri) (1581 — 1641).
Cain runs away in horror as his parents find Abel's body, by the English Romantic visionary, painter and poet William Blake (1757 — 1827). Cain killing Abel in a 15th century painting.
b. Noah’s Ark • 诺亚：在旧约圣经中，被上帝选去建造方舟的大主教，借此方舟，诺亚、其家人以及每种动物的一对，在世界大水中保全了性命 • Men became increasingly corrupt • For the knowledge of evil had been passed on by Adam and Eve • God decided to put an end to mankind, with the exception of Noah. • Noah’s descendant Abraham • He and his people were chosen by Yahweh, who promised them the land of Canaan
A painting by the American Edward Hicks (1780 - 1849), showing the animals boarding Noah's Ark two by two.
ii. Exodus • a religious history of the Hebrews during their flight from Egypt, the period when they began to receive God‘s Law. • Ten Commandments • The message Moses received from the god on the Mount of Sinai
Ten Commandments:摩西十诫 • Monotheism: • “Thou shalt have none other gods before me.” • “Thou shalt not make thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing …thou shalt not bow down thyself unto them, nor serve them; for I the Lord thy God am a jealous God…” • Moralistic concern: • “Honour thy father and thy mother…” • “Thou shalt not kill.” • “Neither shalt thou commit adultery(通奸).” • “Neither shalt thou steal.”