WASTE NOT, WANT NOT! (WN) 2 INSTITUTE Environmental Issues of E-Waste - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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WASTE NOT, WANT NOT! (WN) 2 INSTITUTE Environmental Issues of E-Waste

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  1. WASTE NOT, WANT NOT! (WN)2 INSTITUTEEnvironmental Issues of E-Waste Train-the-Trainer Workshop June 14 – 18th, 2004 Center for Mathematics and Science Education University of Arkansas - Fayetteville Presented and Hosted by A U.S. Environmental Protection Agency funded institute sponsored by the University of Arkansas and the Center for Mathematics and Science Education Lynne Hehr Director, Center for Mathematics and Science Education University of Arkansas Stephan Pollard Doctoral Student, Environmental Dynamics Ph.D. Program University of Arkansas

  2. MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE(MSW) Problems Overview Presented as part of WASTE NOT, WANT NOT (WN)2: Environmental Issues of Waste Disposal Stephan PollardEnvironmental Dynamics ProgramUniversity of Arkansas June 14, 2004, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas

  3. Leachate Seepage in Johnson, AR (Not associated with Tontitown Landfill) 1. Lead Ex. - 2. Cadmium Ex. - 3. Mercury Ex. - 4. Others 1. Petroleum hydrocarbons Ex. - 2. Chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons Ex. - Pathway: Disappearing Stream 3. Ketones Ex. - 4. Others Ex. - Leachate – A Toxic Soup • Heavy Metals batteries, plastics, cans, used oil, lightbulbs, other batteries, plastics, nonfood packaging, electronics, other circuit boards, thermometers, flourescent bulbs, other • Organic Compounds paint, thinner, primer, and remover, glue, gasoline solvents, degreasers, vinyl chloride, other solvents such as acetone • Organometallic Compounds Methylmercury result of bacterial transformation of mercury • Dissolved Solids (minerals)

  4. Tontitown Class 1 Landfill exceeded permitted Action Leakage Rate (i.e., secondary leachate collection system collected more than 21 gal/day/acre) At one point there was an average rate of 25 gal/day/acre • Record keeping deficiencies • Failure to respond appropriately to excessive Action Leakage Rate • General concern for potential threat to human health • April 26, 2002 – WMTL Class I landfill CLOSED! Source: July 10, 2002 ADEQ Hosted Public Meeting in Springdale, AR

  5. Class 1 Landfill: Solid, non-hazardous waste from households, businesses, and industry Current: 66 acres Proposed Expansion: 46 acres E E G G E E E G M ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION E M G M M G M Vinyl Chloride Cadmium G G Landfill Gas M Class 1 G Class 4 M ACTIVE MONITORING E M E G E Class 4 M E E E E Extent Well (17) G G M G G M E G Monitor Well (10) G E E G Landfill Gas Probe (16) E E G Class 4 Landfill: Inert, non-putrescible wastes that do not degrade, or degrade very slowly Waste Management Tontitown Landfill Arbor Acres Rd Little Wildcat Creek Wheeler Rd Source: Pre-Site Report for Proposed Lateral Expansion of WM Tontitown Class I Landfill, July 14, 2003, ADEQ Memorandum; July 10, 2002 ADEQ Hosted Public Meeting in Springdale, AR


  6. GARBAGE / TRASH / RUBBISH / WASTE! First garbage crisis - When human beings became sedentary starting to farm (10,000 – 5,000 years ago)! Four basic methods of garbage disposal – all familiar for thousands of years • Dumping it • Burning it • Turning it into something useful (recycling) • Minimizing the volume of material goods – future garbage (source reduction) We’ve been disposing of garbage for so long that we know what is the most convenient thing to do – dump it or burn it! • In Old Testament times the people of Jerusalem burned some of their garbage in fires emanating from natural gas vents in the nearby Valley of Gehenna. • Colonial times – wastes dumped outside villages or burned as fuel • First modern landfills in the U.S. – Midwest in the early 1900s Health threat, garbage removal, and public responsibility • 1757 Benjamin Franklin instituted the first municipal street cleaning service in the U.S. • Mid 1700’s American households began digging refuse pits, as opposed to throwing garbage out windows and doors

  7. What was the recovery rate for recycling (including composting)? _____ What is Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)? • Technical term for: ___________________________ garbage, trash, waste, or rubbish • Coined in: 1976 when Congress passed the ______________________________ Act Resource Conservation and Recovery • The Act divided the solid waste stream into municipal solid waste and _____________ hazardous waste • MSW includes waste from three main categories: 1) Durable Goods, 2) Non-Durable • Goods and, 3) _____________________ and includes non-manufactured items and • inorganics Containers and packaging Overview of MSW: 2001 Facts and Figures • How much MSW generated? _______________ (Decrease of 2.8 million tons from 2000 (due to slowed economy)) 229.2 million tons! • How much MSW per person per day? ______ (Decrease of 2.2% from 2000) 4.4lbs! 29.7% (Increase of 0.5% from 2000) • What was the per person per day recycling rate? _____ 1.3lbs (3.1lbs per person per day after-recycling discard rate) Source: US EPA, Municipal Solid Waste in The United States: 2001 Facts and Figures, EPA530-R03-011

  8. RECOVERED Less than 0.05% e.g., Glass packaging Steel packaging Aluminum packaging Paper & Paperboard packaging Plastics packaging Wood packaging e.g., Newspapers, books, magazines Clothing and foot wear Pet supplies Towels, sheets, pillow cases Plastic plates and cups Paper plates and cups e.g., Furniture Jewelry Luggage Rubber Tires Carpets and Rugs Appliances Consumer electronics Source: US EPA, Municipal Solid Waste in The United States: 2001 Facts and Figures, EPA530-R03-011

  9. Generation of Products in MSW, 1960 - 2001 229 million tons 88 million tons Source: US EPA, Municipal Solid Waste in The United States: 2001 Facts and Figures, EPA530-R03-011

  10. Source: US EPA, Municipal Solid Waste in The United States: 2001 Facts and Figures, EPA530-R03-011

  11. Includes waste from residential, commercial, and institutional sources * Includes lead from lead-acid batteries. ** Includes recovery of other MSW organics for composting. Neg. = Less than 5,000 tons or 0.05 percent. Source: US EPA, Municipal Solid Waste in The United States: 2001 Facts and Figures, EPA530-R03-011 citing Franklin Associates, Lt.

  12. Generation of Materials in MSW, 1960 - 2001 229 million tons All Other* Yard Food 88 million tons Plastics Metals Glass Paper Source: US EPA, Municipal Solid Waste in The United States: 2001 Facts and Figures, EPA530-R03-011

  13. Recovery 29.7% Land Disposal 55.7% Combustion 14.7% Where does it go? Source: US EPA, Municipal Solid Waste in The United States: 2001 Facts and Figures, EPA530-R03-011

  14. Burn Barrels and Open Burning A recent federal study indicates that just a handful of such fires can spew as much dioxin as a large municipal incinerator does!!!! Burning PVC plastic Studies indicate backyard burning is one of the most significant sources of dioxin See Lemieux, P.M., et al. 2000. Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans from the open burning of household waste in barrels. Environmental Science & Technology 34(Feb. 1):377-384.

  15. Municipal Solid Waste Management, 1960 - 2001 229 million tons 88 million tons Source: US EPA, Municipal Solid Waste in The United States: 2001 Facts and Figures, EPA530-R03-011

  16. Types of Landfills Municipal Solid Waste Landfills • Receive household refuse, industrial waste, construction and demolition debris, and other waste • Not permitted to receive ‘hazardous waste’ • Source of groundwater contamination – percolation of rain and liquids Industrial Waste Landfills • Receive waste from industrial processes • Not permitted to receive ‘hazardous waste’ • Source of groundwater contamination – percolation of rain and liquids Construction and Demolition Landfills • Receive waste from construction and demolition of buildings, bridges, and roads • Not permitted to receive ‘hazardous waste,’ industrial waste, or municipal solid waste • Source of groundwater contamination – percolation of rain and liquids

  17. Source: US EPA, Municipal Solid Waste in The United States: 2001 Facts and Figures, EPA530-R03-011