Jamestown • Was colonized primarily for economic reasons.
After initial failures as a corporate colony, the king revoked the charter and made it a royal colony.
New England Colonies • Were colonized primarily for religious freedom reasons.
Puritans – Wanted to follow the beliefs of John Calvin and break away from the established English church.
Also called separatists. • They were fleeing religious persecution. • Tried to sail to Virginia but missed badly and ended up in Massachusetts.
The colony began much like Jamestown began.Colonists spent time looking for gold.Colonists not used to the “hard life”.Many died of disease and hunger.
Colonists saved by Squanto • First Thanksgiving
Rhode Island • Separatists separate from the separatists.
Rhode Island • Roger Williams wanted to pay Native Americans for their land and have separation of church and state. • He and others were banned from Massachusetts Bay.
THE NEW ENGLAND COLONIES 1) New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island
Geographic Characteristics • Rocky soil and short growing seasons.
Economic Characteristics 1) The New England colonies developed an economy based on ship-building, fishing, lumbering, small scale farming, and eventually, industrial manufacturing (factories)
Political Characteristics They created one of the first forms of government in the colonies called the “Mayflower Compact”
The Mayflower Compact Agreement made by the men of the first Plymouth colony, where the majority ruled.
The Mayflower Compact Created a government based on town meetings, where the majority vote ruled. An example of Direct Democracy.
Social Characteristics 1) New England’s colonial society and government was based on religious standing (the religious leaders were also the political leaders)
Social Characteristics New England communities were closed religious communities. Everyone went to the same church.
Social Characteristics 2) The Puritans grew increasingly intolerant of dissenters who challenged their belief in the connection between religion and government
Social Characteristics “Protestant Work Ethic” – Puritans religious beliefs were closely tied to values of hard work and thrift.
B) The Middle Colonies 1) New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Delaware
Geographic Characteristics • Average soil quality and average growing seasons.
Economic Characteristics 1) The Middle colonies developed economies based on ship building, small-scale farming, and trading
Economic Characteristics Ports in this region such as New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore began to grow as seaports and commercial centers
Political Characteristics • New Netherland established by the Dutch in 1650 along the Hudson River. • Established the town of New Amsterdam, but did not defend it well.
Political Characteristics • The British took the colony by force in 1663 and renamed it New York.
Social Characteristics The Middle Colonies were home to many diverse cultural and religious groups such as Swedes, Germans and Dutch.
Social Characteristics Believed in ideas of religious freedom. Quakers in Pennsylvania Catholics in Maryland
Social Characteristics 2) These colonies were chiefly settled by English, Dutch, and German speaking immigrants seeking religious freedom and economic opportunity 3) In the Middle Colonies there was a strong belief in religious freedom and religious tolerance
Social Characteristics 4) The Middle colonies had a more flexible society and they began to develop a middle class of skilled artisans, entrepreneurs (business owners), and small farmers
THE SOUTHERN COLONIES 1) Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia
Geographic Characteristics • Warm weather, good soil and long growing seasons.
Economic Characteristics 1) Virginia and the other Southern colonies developed economies in the Eastern coastal lowlands based on large plantations
Economic Characteristics 2) These plantations typically grew “cash crops” such as tobacco, indigo, and rice for export to Britain
Economic Characteristics 3) Further inland, however, in the mountains and valleys of the Appalachian mountain foothills (Shenandoah Valley) the economy was based on small scale subsistence farming and hunting and trading
Political Characteristics • Virginia House of Burgesses – Later called the General Assembly. • First elected assembly in the New World • Representative Democracy
Social Characteristics • “Cavaliers” were rich nobility from England who were given land grants by the king.
Social Characteristics 2) Virginia and Southern colonies had a social structure and government based on family status and the ownership of land
Social Characteristics 3) Large landowners in the Eastern lowlands dominated colonial government and society and they maintained an allegiance to the Church of England =
Social Characteristics 3) Virginia and the Southern colonies had the closest social ties to England
Social Characteristics • Slaveholding elite along the coast vs. subsistence farming lower class in the interior • Leads to problems in the Civil War
Cash Crops Any crop that is produced in large quantities for trade.
Cash Crops • Usually produced with slave labor • Plantations usually focus on one type of crop.
Mercantilism • Economic theory used by Europeans where they did the following… • Acquire gold • Establish colonies
Mercantilism • If you can’t get gold straight out of the land… • Collect raw materials • Trade • develop industry