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4MB Clinical Problem-Solving

4MB Clinical Problem-Solving

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4MB Clinical Problem-Solving

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  1. 4MB Clinical Problem-Solving Dr. Gerard Flaherty Dept. of Medicine

  2. 68-yr old ♂ Presenting Complaint: Shortness of Breath

  3. Acute or chronic? Severity? Exercise tolerance? Orthopnoea? Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea? Diurnal variation? Cough…productive? Fever? Chest pain? Haemoptysis? Swollen legs? Weight loss? Back pain? PR bleeding? Occupational history History of Presenting Complaint

  4. New York Heart Association Classification of Dyspnoea • Grade 1 No dyspnoea • Grade 2 Dyspnoea on moderate exertion • Grade 3 Dyspnoea on mild exertion • Grade 4 Dyspnoea at rest

  5. Heart rate Rhythm Pulse volume Pulse character Raised JVP +ve Pemberton’s sign Cyanosis Clubbing Hyperinflated chest Chest expansion Percussion note Breath sounds Bronchial breathing Crackles Wheeze Pleural rub Peak flow Sputum pot Murmurs (AS, MS, TR) Loud P2? Pale mucous membranes Physical Examination

  6. Congestive cardiac failure

  7. Pneumothorax

  8. Superior Vena Cava Obstruction

  9. Pulse oximetry Chest radiograph Arterial blood gas Electrocardiogram Echocardiogram Full blood count D-Dimers V-Q scan Pulmonary function tests High resolution CT Thorax Sputum culture/cytology/AFB Pleural aspirate ESR/HLA-B27 (?Ankylosing spondylitis) Anti-AchR antibodies Investigations

  10. Pericardial Effusion

  11. Cardiac Left ventricular failure Pulmonary oedema Dilated cardiomyopathy Mitral valve disease Aortic stenosis Arrhythmias Pericardial effusion Respiratory Pulmonary embolism Pulmonary fibrosis Lung tumour Pneumonia Pneumothorax Pleural effusion Asthma COPD Bronchiectasis Lung collapse Primary Pulmonary Hyprtension Metabolic Metabolic acidosis Anaemia Thyrotoxicosis Psychogenic hyperventilation Neuromuscular Kyphoscoliosis Ankylosing spondylitis Muscular dystrophy Poliomyelitis Myasthenia gravis Guillain-Barré syndrome Differential Diagnosis

  12. Right Middle Lobe Pneumonia

  13. Lung Abscesses

  14. Clinical Indicators of Severe Community-acquired Pneumonia • Age >60 • RR >30/min • Diastolic BP <60 • Atrial fibrillation • Confusion • Immunosuppression • Raised urea • Leukopenia or severe leukocytosis • Hypoalbuminaemia • PaO2 <8kPa

  15. Pneumonia Bronchiectasis Lung Abscess Tuberculosis Aspergilloma Pulmonary embolus Bronchogenic carcinoma Goodpasture’s syndrome Pulmonary contusion A-V malformation Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia Bleeding disorder Epistaxis Mitral stenosis Causes of Haemoptysis

  16. Transudate Protein <30 g/l Cardiac failure Constrictive pericarditis Hypoalbuminaemia Meig’s syndrome SVC obstruction Hypothyroidism Liver failure Exudate Pneumonia Bronchogenic carcinoma Pulmonary infarct Rheumatoid/SLE Dressler’s syndrome Sarcoidosis Renal failure Acute pancreatitis Subphrenic abscess Oesophageal rupture Pleural Effusions

  17. Obstructive defect FEV1   FVC  FEV1/FVC <70% RV  TLC  KCO (CO transfer factor)  Restrictive defect FEV1  FVC   FEV1/FVC >80% RV  TLC  KCO  Pulmonary Function Tests

  18. Emphysema

  19. Pulmonary Fibrosis

  20. Back pain, shortness of breath, sore eyes…give the diagnosis.