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BASIC ELECTRICITY. CHAPTER 1 ATOMIC STRUCTURE. ALTERNATING CURRENT(AC) ATOM ATTRACTION CENTRIFUGAL FORCE CONDUCTORS DIRECT CURRENT (DC) ELECTRON ELECTRON ORBITS. INSULATORS MATTER NEGATIVE NEUTRON NUCLEUS POSITIVE PROTON SEMICONDUCTORS VALENCE ELECTRONS. TERMS TO KNOW.

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Basic electricity

BASIC ELECTRICITY

CHAPTER 1

ATOMIC STRUCTURE


Terms to know

ALTERNATING CURRENT(AC)

ATOM

ATTRACTION

CENTRIFUGAL FORCE

CONDUCTORS

DIRECT CURRENT (DC)

ELECTRON

ELECTRON ORBITS

INSULATORS

MATTER

NEGATIVE

NEUTRON

NUCLEUS

POSITIVE

PROTON

SEMICONDUCTORS

VALENCE ELECTRONS

TERMS TO KNOW


History of electricity
HISTORY OF ELECTRICITY

  • GREEKS DISCOVERED 2500 YEARS AGO

  • USED PRACTICALLY ABOUT 100 YEARS

  • AMBER BECAME CHARGED WHEN RUBBED WITH OTHER MATERIALS: ATTRACTED THINGS LIKE LEAVES, FEATHERS, BITS OF CLOTH

  • THE WORD ELECTRIC COMES FROM THE WORD “ELEKTRON”


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LIST A: POSITIVE

LIST B: NEGATIVE


Study of atoms
STUDY OF ATOMS

  • ATOM IS THE BUILDING BLOCK OF UNIVERSE

  • ALL MATTER IS MADE FROM A COMBINATION OF ATOMS

  • MATTER IS ANY SUBSTANCE THAT HAS MASS AND TAKES UP SPACE

  • MATTER CAN EXIST IN THREE FORMS: SOLID, LIQUID, OR GAS

  • ELEMENT: CAN’T BE DIVIDED INTO A SIMPLER SUBSTANCE


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STUDY OF ATOMS

THREE STATES OF WATER


Basic electricity

THREE PARTS OF AN ATOM: 1.ELECTRON

2. PROTON 3.NEUTRON

NUCLEUS: PROTON AND NEUTRON

NOTICE THE CHARGES OF EACH PART


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PROTON=POSITIVE CHARGE

ELECTRON=NEGATIVE

CHARGE


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LAW OF CHARGES….

Opposite charges attract and like charges repel


Valence electrons
VALENCE ELECTRONS

  • OUTER SHELL OF ATOM IS KNOWN AS “VALENCE SHELL”

  • ELECTRONS LOCATED IN OUTER SHELL ARE “VALENCE ELECTRONS”

  • THE VALENCE SHELL CAN’T HOLD MORE THAN 8 ELECTRONS




Basic electricity

INSULATORS: HAVE 7 OR 8 ELECTRONS IN VALENCE SHELL

SEMICONDUCTORS: HAVE 4 ELECRONS IN VALENCE SHELL


Conductors
CONDUCTORS

  • THEY HAVE ONLY 1 OR 2 VALENCE ELECTRONS:

  • THEY GIVE UP THOSE ELECTRONS EASILY WITH LITTLE EFFORT

  • THEY ALLOW CURRENT FLOW EASILY: LOW RESISTANCE!!!!!!


Examples of good conductors
EXAMPLES OF GOODCONDUCTORS

  • SILVER: 1 VALENCE ELECTRON

  • COPPER: 1 VALENCE ELECTRON

  • GOLD: 1 VALENCE ELECTRON

  • ALUMINUM: 3 VALENCE ELECTRON

  • PLATINUM: 1 VALENCE ELECTRON


Insulators
INSULATORS

  • MATERIALS THAT HAVE 7 OR 8 VALENCE ELECTRONS

  • RESIST FLOW OF ELECTRICITY

  • ELECTRONS ARE HELD TIGHTLY AND ARE NOT GIVEN UP EASILY


Examples of insulators
EXAMPLES OF INSULATORS

  • RUBBER

  • PLASTIC

  • GLASS

  • WOOD


Semiconductors
SEMICONDUCTORS

  • MATERIALS THAT HAVE 4 VALENCE ELECTRONS

  • ARE NEITHER GOOD FOR CONDUCTORS OR INSULATORS

  • USED TO MAKE DIODES AND TRANSISTORS

  • COMPUTORS ARE FULL OF SEMICONDUCTOR MATERIAL

  • SILICON AND GERMANIUM MOST COMMON USED


Methods of producing electricity
METHODS OF PRODUCINGELECTRICITY

  • MAGNETISM=GENERATOR

  • CHEMICAL=BATTERY

  • PRESSURE=PIEZO SENSORS

  • HEAT=THERMOCOUPLES

  • FRICTION=STATIC

  • LIGHT=PHOTO ELECTRIC


Review
REVIEW…..

  • OPEN THE BOOKS TO SUMMARY AT END OF CHAPTER.

  • DO THE REVIEW QUESTIONS IN CLASS.